Monday, February 10, 2020
Sunday, January 19, 2020
“IRAN’S ISLAMIC REVOLUTION (The Fall of the Shah) - On October 8, 1962, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the Western-oriented shah of Iran, whose father, Reza Shah, had admired Kemal Ataturk and set Iran on a secular path, granted women the right to vote in elections for local councils and gave permission for those elected to take their oaths of office on any sacred book, not just the Qur’an—which meant that they didn’t have to be Muslim. 115 In response, a little-known ayatollah named Ruhollah Khomeini and his colleagues instructed Shi’ite clergy all over the country to denounce the government. Several weeks later, the shah relented: his prime minister, Assadollah Alam, announced that candidates for local councils would have to be Muslim, that oaths must be sworn on the Qur’an only, and that the Majlis would decide the question of women’s suffrage. 116 Then, in January 1963, the shah announced a series of reforms he called the White Revolution, including distributing land to the poor and allowing women not only to vote but also to run for office. Khomeini declared, “What is happening is a calculated plot against Iranian independence and the Islamic nation, and it is threatening the foundation of Islam.” 117 He and other Shi’ite clergy called for demonstrations, which so unnerved the shah that on January 24, 1963, during a presentation on the glories of land reform, he gave an impromptu speech attacking the ayatollahs and their allies as “a stupid and reactionary bunch whose brains have not moved… stupid men who don’t understand and are ill-intentioned… they don’t want to see this country develop.” 118 The “stupid and reactionary bunch” didn’t give up, and over the years, tensions increased. The shah exiled Khomeini, but that didn’t calm the situation. In exile in Iraq in 1970, Khomeini articulated a view called velayat-e faqih (guardianship of the jurist). Islam, Khomeini argued, had not just given mankind a set of laws. “A body of laws alone,” said Khomeini, “is not sufficient for a society to be reformed. In order for law to ensure the reform and happiness of man, there must be an executive power and an executor. For this reason, God Almighty, in addition to revealing a body of law [that is, the ordinances of the Sharia]… has laid down a particular form of government together with executive and administrative institutions.” 119 Where were these divinely ordained executive and administrative institutions to be found? Khomeini argued that clerical rule, which many dismissed as an unacceptable innovation in Islam, was mandated by the example of Muhammad himself, whom the Qur’an declared to be the supreme model for Muslims (33: 21): “The Most Noble Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) headed the executive and administrative institutions of Muslim society. In addition to conveying the revelation and expounding and interpreting the articles of faith and the ordinances and institutions of Islam, he undertook the implementation of law and the establishment of the ordinances of Islam, thereby bringing into being the Islamic state.” 120 So, Khomeni argued, following the example of Muhammad, modern-day Shi’ite clerics should rule Iran and make it an Islamic state. He explained: “The fundamental difference between Islamic government, on the one hand, and constitutional monarchies and republics, on the other, is this: whereas the representatives of the people or the monarch in such regimes engage in legislation, in Islam the legislative power and competence to establish laws belongs exclusively to God Almighty.” 121 The unrest in Iran grew, and repressive measures from the shah only made matters worse. Finally, on January 16, 1979, after riots and numerous calls for him to go, a tearful shah and his family left Iran. 122 Two weeks later, on February 1, Khomeini returned to Iran after fourteen years of exile. He announced the formation of a new government, declaring: “This is not an ordinary government. It is a government based on the shari’a. Opposing this government means opposing the shari’a of Islam and revolting against the shari’a, and revolt against the government of the shari’a has its punishment in our law… it is a heavy punishment in Islamic jurisprudence. Revolt against God’s government is a revolt against God. Revolt against God is blasphemy.” 123 On November 4, 1979, a group calling itself Muslim Students Following the Imam’s Line (that is, Khomeini’s line) entered the U.S. embassy compound in Tehran and took hostage the skeleton staff of sixty-six that was still serving there after the fall of the shah. 124 Khomeini was delighted, dubbing the hostage-taking “the Second Revolution.” 125 He told a reporter, “I regard the occupation of the American Embassy as a spontaneous and justified retaliation of our people.” 126 He explained that the hostage crisis would assist the Islamic Republic in consolidating power: “This action has many benefits. The Americans do not want to see the Islamic Republic taking root. We keep the hostages, finish our internal work, then release them.” 127 Fifty-two of the American hostages remained in captivity for 444 days, until January 20, 1981.128 Khomeini continued to ensure that the Islamic Republic would be Islamic, and nothing but. He declared, “What the nation wants is an Islamic Republic. Not just a Republic, not a democratic Republic, not a democratic Islamic Republic. Do not use the word ‘democratic’ to describe it. That is the Western style.” 129 Indeed, there was nothing democratic about his regime. Khomeini embarked on a reign of terror, executing his political foes in large numbers and shutting down opposition newspapers and magazines. 130 He told secularists, “The ‘clog-wearer and the turbaned’ have given you a chance. After each revolution several thousand of these corrupt elements are executed in public and burnt and the story is over. They are not allowed to publish newspapers.… We will close all parties except the one, or a few which act in a proper manner.… We all made mistakes. We thought we were dealing with human beings. It is evident we are not. We are dealing with wild animals. We will not tolerate them any more.” 131 The Sharia state that Khomeini constructed gave Iranians neither democracy nor equality of rights under the law. In 1985, Sa’idRaja’i-Khorassani, the permanent delegate to the United Nations from the Islamic Republic of Iran, declared that “the very concept of human rights was ‘a Judeo-Christian invention’ and inadmissible in Islam.… According to Ayatollah Khomeini, one of the shah’s ‘most despicable sins’ was the fact that Iran was among the original group of nations that drafted and approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” 132 Khomeini thundered that fighting was an Islamic duty: “Jihad or Holy War, which is for the conquest of [other] countries and kingdoms, becomes incumbent after the formation of the Islamic State in the presence of the Imam or in accordance with his command. Then Islam makes it incumbent on all adult males, provided they are not disabled or incapacitated, to prepare themselves for the conquest of countries so that the writ of Islam is obeyed in every country in the world.… Islam’s Holy War is a struggle against idolatry, sexual deviation, plunder, repression and cruelty.… But those who study Islamic Holy War will understand why Islam wants to conquer the whole world.” 133 The goal of this conquest would be to establish the hegemony of Islamic law. Khomeini had no patience for those who insisted that Islam was a religion of peace: Those who know nothing of Islam pretend that Islam counsels against war. Those [who say this] are witless. Islam says: Kill all the unbelievers just as they would kill you all! Does this mean that Muslims should sit back until they are devoured by [the unbelievers]? Islam says: Kill them [the non-Muslims], put them to the sword and scatter [their armies]. Does this mean sitting back until [non-Muslims] overcome us? Islam says: Kill in the service of Allah those who may want to kill you! Does this mean that we should surrender [to the enemy]? Islam says: Whatever good there is exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! People cannot be made obedient except with the sword! The sword is the key to Paradise, which can be opened only for the Holy Warriors! There are hundreds of other [Qur’anic] psalms and Hadiths [sayings of the Prophet] urging Muslims to value war and to fight. Does all this mean that Islam is a religion that prevents men from waging war? I spit upon those foolish souls who make such a claim. 134 Under the Islamic Republic, Iran became a totalitarian Sharia backwater and a chief financier of global jihad terrorism. Iran was the embodiment of a notorious statement of Khomeini’s: “Allah did not create man so that he could have fun. The aim of creation was for mankind to be put to the test through hardship and prayer. An Islamic regime must be serious in every field. There are no jokes in Islam. There is no humor in Islam. There is no fun in Islam. There can be no fun and joy in whatever is serious. Islam does not allow swimming in the sea and is opposed to radio and television serials. Islam, however, allows marksmanship, horseback riding and competition.” 135 The Party of Allah There was no fun in Islam—or in Iran, either. Through its proxy, the Lebanese jihad terror group Hizballah (Party of Allah), the Islamic Republic pursued jihad against the United States. On October 23, 1983, Hizballah bombed military barracks in Beirut, murdering 241 American servicemen (including 220 Marines) and fifty-eight French military personnel. Hizballah and Iran denied involvement in that bombing, but there was considerable evidence to the contrary—not least the fact that the truck carrying the over twenty-one thousand pounds of TNT that exploded at the barracks was driven by Ismail Ascari, an Iranian national. On May 30, 2003, U.S. District Court judge Royce Lamberth found Iran and Hizballah responsible for the bombing, which he called “the most deadly state-sponsored terrorist attack made against United States citizens before September 11, 2001.” 136 The Lebanese terror group also won notoriety for its jihad suicide bombing at the U.S. Embassy in Beirut on April 18, 1983, which killed sixty-three people, including seventeen Americans. As he did in the barracks case, Lamberth found that the embassy bombing had been carried out by Hizballah and financed by Iranian officials. Hizballah continued its actions against the United States by kidnapping the CIA station chief in Lebanon, William Buckley, on March 16, 1984. Buckley’s captors subsequently delivered several videos to American embassies showcasing how they were torturing him. After viewing the first, CIA director William Casey said: “I was close to tears. It was the most obscene thing I had ever witnessed. Bill was barely recognizable as the man I had known for years. They had done more than ruin his body. His eyes made it clear his mind had been played with. It was horrific, medieval and barbarous.” 137 No one knows for certain when William Buckley died. The likeliest time is sometime during the night of June 3, 1985, the 444th day of his captivity.” 138 Hizballah’s primary mission, of course, was to wage jihad against Israel. Hizballah founder Hassan Nasrallah has said, “If they [Jews] all gather in Israel, it will save us the trouble of going after them worldwide.” 139 Hizballah menaced the Jewish state from Lebanon in the North, while Hamas (Sunni, but also funded by Iran) harassed it from Gaza in the South. The Islamic Republic’s Example In the last two decades of the twentieth century, the Islamic Republic of Iran became for those who believed that Islamic law was the sole legitimate source of law for every society what the Republic of Turkey had been for secular Muslims in the middle of the century: an example and an inspiration, an indication that a group with their perspective could succeed in overthrowing an established national government and take and hold power in a state. Bringing down the biggest infidel state of all in the second half of the twentieth century was the goal of other jihad groups.”
— The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS by Robert Spencer
— The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS by Robert Spencer
THE JIHAD IN INDIA BEGINS - Conquering Sindh In 711, the same year that Tariq ibn Ziyad and his men crossed the Strait of Gibraltar in Count Julian’s boats and began the jihad against Spain, the Umayyad Empire was expanding eastward as well. Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, the governor of Iraq, sent the general Muhammad ibn Qasim into Sindh, modern-day western Pakistan. It was the beginning of the jihad conquest of India. Hajjaj gave his commander ruthlessly precise instructions: My ruling is given: Kill anyone belonging to the combatants [ahl-i harb]; arrest their sons and daughters for hostages and imprison them. Whoever submits…grant them aman [protection] and settle their tribute [amwal] as dhimmah.19 This policy severely discouraged resistance. The Muslim invaders of India treated the native population with extraordinary harshness. In jihad campaigns in Europe, as well as in the Middle East and Persia, the warriors of jihad had subjugated the local populations and collected the jizya from them—the Qur’an-mandated (9:29) poll tax to be paid by the People of the Book, that is, the monotheistic Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. But the Hindus, Jains, and Buddhists whom Muhammad ibn Qasim and his jihadis encountered in Hindustan were not People of the Book, and hence no jizya could be demanded from them. Their only choices were to convert to Islam or face the sword of Islam. The Indians quickly realized just how ruthless their foe really was. As the Muslims besieged the city of Brahmanabad, its inhabitants saw the writing on the wall: If we unite and go forth to fight, we will be killed: for even if peace is [subsequently] made, those who are combatants [ahl-i silat] will all be put to death. As for the rest of the people; aman is given to the merchants, artisans, and agriculturalists. It is better that we be trusted. Therefore, we should surrender the fort to him on the basis of a secure covenant [ahd-i wathiq].20 However, not all of the Sindhis were that willing to give up without a struggle, even at Brahmanabad. The Muslim response was just as fierce; Muslims massacred between six thousand and twenty-six thousand Sindhis at Brahmanabad, six thousand more at Rawar, four thousand at Iskalandah, and six thousand at Multan. As Muhammad ibn Qasim’s jihad in India continued, however, it proved to be impractical to offer all the people in India the choice of conversion to Islam or death: there were simply too many people in India for them all to be converted to Islam or killed. Consequently, an adjustment had to be made, and Muhammad ibn Qasim ultimately granted the Hindus the status of the People of the Book, accepting their submission and payment of the jizya, with the ultimate objective remaining to bring all of these people into the fold of Islam.21 The jihadis, however, were unremittingly ruthless toward Hindu temples. The Qur’an says: “And were it not that Allah checks the people, some by means of others, there would have been demolished monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques in which the name of Allah is much mentioned.” (22:40) The Qur’an regards Jesus and the prophets of Hebrew Scriptures as prophets and the Torah and Gospel as legitimate revelations, although it contends that the Jews and Christians twisted their prophets’ words and altered the scriptures they received. Consequently, while many churches and synagogues were seized throughout the history of jihad and turned into mosques, this was never a thoroughgoing or universal policy. Hindu temples, by contrast, were always considered to be centers of idolatry, in which the “name of Allah” was not “much mentioned,” and consequently they were to be destroyed whenever possible. At Daybul, the Muslims faced a force of four thousand Rajputs (Indian warriors) and two to three thousand Brahmins (Hindu priests) defending a Hindu temple. Once victorious, Muhammad ibn Qasim had the temple destroyed and the Brahmins circumcised so as to convert them to Islam. However, seeing that his new converts were resisting, rather than embracing, their new religion, he ordered all of them over the age of seventeen to be executed.22 The victorious jihadis began a massacre so intensive that it lasted three days.23 Young women and children were enslaved, but in a rare act of mercy, older women were freed outright.24 Seeing the immensity of the task before him, Muhammad ibn Qasim began encouraging the locals to surrender rather than fight; but this aroused the ire of his boss. Hajjaj wrote to Muhammad urging him to be more discriminating between those who had surrendered sincerely and those who had not, and charged that his practice of granting protection was un-Islamic: I am appalled by your bad judgment and astounded by your policies. Why are you so intent on giving aman, even to an enemy whom you have tested and found hostile and intransigent? It is not necessary to give aman to everyone without discrimination.… In any case, if [the Sindis] sincerely request aman and desist from treachery, they will surely stop fighting. Then income will meet expenditures and this long situation will be concluded.… It is acknowledged that all your procedures have been in accordance with religious law [bar jadah-yi shar] except for the one practice of giving aman. For you are giving aman to everyone without distinguishing between friend and foe.25 His instructions to Muhammad ibn Qasim were ruthlessly precise: God says, “Give no quarter to infidels but cut their throats.” Then you shall know that this is the command of the great God. You shall not be too ready to grant protection, because it will prolong your work. After this give no quarter to any enemy except those of rank.26 Muhammad ibn Qasim may have been too lenient for Hajjaj’s taste, but as he subdued Sindh he was ruthless against manifestations of non-Muslim religion. At Nirun, he had a mosque built on the site of a Buddhist temple, and appointed an imam to instruct converts in the new, dominant religion. After a series of victories over Dahir, king of Sindh, Muhammad wrote triumphantly to Hajjaj: The forts of Siwistan and Sisam have been already taken. The nephew of Dahir, his warriors, and principal officers have been dispatched, and infidels converted to Islam or destroyed. Instead of idol temples, mosques and other places of worship have been built, pulpits have been erected, the Khutba [Islamic Friday sermon] is read, the call to prayers is raised so that devotions are performed at the stated hours. The takbir [“Allahu akbar”] and praise to the Almighty God are offered every morning and evening.27 At Multan, Muhammad ibn Qasim ordered the destruction of an immense idol made of gold, with eyes of rubies. According to the Chach Nama, a twelfth-century Persian history of the conquest of Sindh that may have been based on an earlier Arabic original, “Two hundred and thirty mans of gold were obtained, and forty jars filled with gold dust. This gold and the image were brought to the treasury together with the gems and pearls and treasures which were obtained from the plunder of Multan.”28 Muhammad ibn Qasim left another idol in place at Multan because of its popularity, intending to profit from the many offerings left there; however, to show his horror at Hindu superstition, and seeing that the cow was sacred to Hindus, he ordered that the idol’s necklace be removed and replaced with a piece of cow’s flesh.29 The idol did not protest. The great general and his followers told the Hindus that was a sign that their idols were false and the harsh god of the invaders was the only true god. The conquering jihad commander sent some of his massive haul back to the caliph Walid, along with two choice sex slaves, the daughters of the Sindhi king Dahir himself. One of them, named Janaki, particularly caught the caliph’s eye, but when he took her to bed, the panicked girl told him that she had already been raped by Muhammad ibn Qasim. Walid was enraged. Muhammad ibn Qasim had dared to send him damaged goods. Immediately he ordered that the victorious general, victories or no, be sewn up into a rawhide sack and shipped to his court. By the time the sack containing Muhammad ibn Qasim arrived, he was already dead. The cause of Walid’s monumental fit of temper, Janaki, was appalled. “The king has committed a very grievous mistake,” she exclaimed, “for he ought not, on account of two slave girls, to have destroyed a person who had taken captive a hundred thousand modest women like us and who instead of temples had erected mosques, pulpits and minarets.”30 In any case, the killing of Muhammad ibn Qasim stalled the jihad in India. But the subcontinent was never forgotten. A century or so after Muhammad ibn Qasim’s jihad in Sindh, words were put into the mouth of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, emphasizing the importance of jihad in India. Abu Huraira, one of Muhammad’s companions, is depicted in a hadith as saying: “The Messenger of Allah promised that we would invade India.”31 In another hadith, Muhammad himself says: “There are two groups of my Ummah whom Allah will free from the Fire: The group that invades India, and the group that will be with Isa bin Maryam [Jesus Christ], peace be upon him.”32
“THE JIHAD IN EUROPE The #Ottomans continued their ascent. The #Safavid Persians, who had just adopted Shi’ism in 1501, were a new and potent force confronting the Ottoman sultanate in eastern Asia Minor; as the Ottomans grew in power and confidence, a confrontation was inevitable. There was, however, one obstacle: the Qur’an forbids Muslims to kill fellow Muslims (4: 92), and so these Shi’a had to be declared non-Muslim. A decree therefore went out that “according to the precepts of the holy law,” the Safavid Shah Ismail and his followers were “unbelievers and heretics. Any who sympathize and accept their false religion or assist them are also unbelievers and heretics. It is a necessity and a divine obligation that they be massacred and their communities be dispersed.” 1 The Ottoman sultan Selim then wrote to Shah Ismail: “You have subjected the upright community of Muhammad… to your devious will [and] undermined the firm foundation of the faith; you have unfurled the banner of oppression in the cause of aggression [and] no longer uphold the commandments and prohibitions of the Divine Law; you have incited your abominable Shii faction to unsanctified sexual union and the shedding of innocent blood.” 2 The jihad against the Shi’ites thus justified, the Ottomans defeated them in 1514, and drove them from the eastern regions of Asia Minor. Two years later, the Ottomans defeated the #Mamluks and gained control of Syria and the Holy Land and defeated them again to win Egypt shortly thereafter. Their preeminence in the Islamic world, outside of Persia and India, was now secured, and then cemented in 1517 when the last Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakkil III, surrendered his authority to the Ottoman caliph Selim I. 3 Although the Holy Land had been occupied by Muslims since 1291, the Ottoman presence there was alarming to the crowned heads of Europe, who had long had an opportunity to see the Ottomans up close, far closer than they would have preferred. Pope Leo X tried to organize a new Crusade, and in 1518 called upon the leaders of Europe to stop their infighting and unite against the jihadis, but it was that very infighting that prevented any concerted European effort against the Ottomans. The Ottomans even became a rhetorical weapon in that infighting. In response to Pope Leo X’s efforts toward a new Crusade, the pioneering reformer Martin Luther declared that “to fight against the Turk is the same thing as resisting God, who visits our sin upon us with this rod.” 4 In polemicizing against the Roman Church, Luther even charged that the papacy was worse than the Ottoman caliphate, thus making a Crusade against the Ottomans in alliance with the pope anathema to many Protestants: The Pope, with his followers, commits a greater sin than the Turk and all the Heathen.… The Turk forces no one to deny Christ and to adhere to his faith.… Though he rages most intensely by murdering Christians in the body—he, after all, does nothing by this but fill heaven with saints.… The Pope does not want to be either enemy or Turk.… He fills hell with nothing but “Christians”.… This is committing real spiritual murder and is every bit as bad as the teaching and blasphemy of Mohammed and the Turks. But whenever men do not allow him to practice this infernal diabolical seduction—he adopts the way of the Turk, and commits bodily murder too.… The Turk is an avowed enemy of Christ. But the Pope is not. He is a secret enemy and persecutor, a false friend. For this reason, he is all the worse! 5 Luther’s broadside was one of the earliest examples of what was to become a near-universal tendency in the West: the downplaying of jihad atrocities and their use in arguments between Westerners to make one side look worse. No Crusade was forthcoming. And so, with their rivals defeated or at bay, the now undisputed Ottoman caliphate could turn its attention once again to Europe. The janissaries were the spearhead of this new jihad effort. As converted Christians, they were more trustworthy as slaves of the sultan than Muslims would have been, as it was widely believed that the Muslims would use their position to favor their relatives and home regions. But the janissaries, cut off from their families and homelands, aroused no such concerns. A contemporary observer explained: “If Christian children accept Islam, they become zealous in the faith and enemies of their relatives.” 6 This was so widely accepted as axiomatic that a Christian visitor, Baron Wenceslas Wradislaw, noted: “Never… did I hear it said of any pasha, or observe either in Constantinople or in the whole land of Turkey, that any pasha was a natural born Turk; on the contrary, kidnapped, or captured, or turned Turk.” 7 Commanding this force of zealous converts from 1520 to 1566 was the sultan who came to be known as Suleiman the Magnificent, who took the Ottoman caliphate to the height of its power. His jihadis defeated the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, whom the Ottomans regarded (in the words of an official of the sultanate) as “professional cutthroats and pirates,” taking the island of Rhodes after a 145-day siege in 1522.8 Ottoman power over the eastern Mediterranean was near total, with only Cyprus and Crete remaining outside the domains of the caliphate. But the Ottomans generally neglected Rhodes, to the degree that the Venetian envoy Pietro Zeno asserted the year after its conquest that “the Sultan has no use for Rhodes.” 9 Zeno may not have realized that the Ottomans had not taken Rhodes to put it to any particular use, but simply because the jihad imperative was universal and absolute. In 1526, the sultan ordered his jihad warriors to take Vienna. The armies were under the supervision of Ibrahim Pasha, Suleiman’s grand vizier, a Greek Christian who had been captured, enslaved, and converted to Islam as a boy, and who had then risen high in the Ottoman court after befriending Suleiman. When the jihadis arrived at Belgrade on their way to Austria, Suleiman ordered Ibrahim to take it, recounting later in his diary that he told him “it will be but a bite to last him till breakfast at Vienna.” 10 Once Belgrade was taken, Suleiman noted with satisfaction that “the Grand Vezir has 500 soldiers of the garrison beheaded; 300 others are taken away into slavery.” 11 The jihadis moved into Hungary, where they soundly defeated a massive Hungarian force at Mohacs. On August 31, 1526, Suleiman recorded in his diary, speaking of himself in the third person: “The Sultan, seated on a golden throne, receives the homage of the viziers and the beys; massacre of 2,000 prisoners; the rain falls in torrents.” 12 He ordered Mohacs to be burned. Its site came to be known among Hungarians as “the tomb of the Hungarian nation.” 13 Four days later, the jihadis took Buda. Suleiman recorded the details: “Sept. 4. Order to massacre all peasants in the camp. Women alone exempted. Akinjis forbidden to plunder.” 14 The akinjis were the Ottoman cavalry and advance troops. They ignored the antiplunder order, and Suleiman did not punish them for doing so. 15 The jihadis burned Buda and seized the treasures of its renowned library and much of its great art, including statues of Hercules, Diana, and Apollo, for shipment back to Constantinople. 16 Suleiman took the most satisfaction in seizing two immense cannons that Mehmet II was forced to leave behind after one of his campaigns. The Hungarians had put them on display as trophies signifying their defeat of the Ottomans; there was to be no more of that. 17 Suleiman lingered awhile in Hungary, but unexpectedly, he did not make it part of the Ottoman Empire. The historian Kemal Pasha Zadeh, a contemporary of Suleiman, wrote: “The time when this province should be annexed to the possession of Islam had not yet arrived.… The matter was therefore postponed to a more suitable occasion.” 18 He instead chose the next Hungarian king, John Zapolya, and made him his vassal. Apparently, the sultan did not think that the territory could be held securely or governed effectively from Constantinople at that time, and this was reinforced when he set out again in May 1529 and his armies, stymied by heavy rains, took almost four months to return to Buda. 19 Once there, Suleiman crowned his vassal Hungarian king and embarked for Vienna. When they arrived in September 1529, the Muslims plundered and set fire to the villages surrounding the city, and then laid siege to the city itself. This time Luther green-lighted the defense of Christendom against the Turks, and a combined force of Catholics and Protestants, some of whom had just arrived three days before the Ottomans, were inside Vienna ready to defend it against the jihadi onslaught. The bad weather forced Suleiman to leave behind some of his key equipment at Buda, and this hampered the assault by the Muslims, yet they still had a considerable force to throw at the city, and they did. The Christians held firm. Suleiman abandoned the siege in mid-October, burning to death all of his prisoners except those who would be useful as slaves, and set out for Constantinople. Back at Buda, John Zapolya lavished flattery upon his master, congratulating Suleiman for his “successful campaign.” 20 Suleiman tried again in 1532 to take Vienna but wasn’t even able to get into Austria; Archduke Ferdinand of Austria stopped the jihadis in Hungary. However, the sultan did not forget Vienna. He had better luck against the Shi’ite Safavids, from whom he took Baghdad in 1534. On a fortress in Bessarabia (modern-day Mol-dova), Suleiman inscribed a boast proclaiming himself the master of the Safavids, Byzantines, and Mamluks: “In Baghdad I am the shah, in Byzantine realms the Caesar, and in Egypt the sultan.” 21 The Safavids and Mamluks were not entirely subdued, but he had beaten them both enough to give substance to the boast. Egypt became a valued source for slaves captured from sub-Saharan Africa: at the Turkish port of Antalya, a customs official in 1559 noted the arrival of cargo from Egypt, among which “black slaves, both male and female, constituted the bulk of the traffic. Many ships carried slaves exclusively.” 22 Mindful of his Islamic responsibility, Suleiman oversaw extensive renovations at Mecca, ensuring a pure water supply for pilgrims and opening schools of Islamic theology. In Jerusalem, he had the Dome of the Rock redecorated in the Ottoman style. He was careful always to keep the dhimmis in their place. In 1548, the French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, M. d’Aramon, visited the Holy Land and reported: “Jerusalem has been enclosed by city walls built by the Turks, but there are neither ramparts nor a ditch. The town is medium-sized and not much populated, the streets are narrow and unpaved.… The so-called temple of Solomon is at the base of the city… round and with a lead-covered dome; around its core are chapels as in our churches, which is all one can surmise because no Christian is permitted to enter the area without threat of death or having to become a [Muslim].” 23 As he grew older, Suleiman’s zealousness for jihad waned. His campaigns against Christian Europe became a distant memory. For some of those around him, this was an indictment. In 1566, when Suleiman was seventy-one years old and had not led an expedition into Europe for twenty-three years, his daughter Mihrimah Sultan reproached the caliph for neglecting his Islamic obligation to lead the armies of Islam in jihad warfare against non-Muslims. 24 Suleiman was stung by the criticism, particularly from a woman, and found no better retort than to get back on his horse. Several months later, outside the fortress of Szigetvar in Hungary, which the jihadis were besieging, the old warrior died in his tent. 25 To avoid demoralizing the troops, his death was not announced for forty-eight days; a page who slightly resembled him was dressed in his clothes and carried in his litter on the journey home, but most onlookers saw through the ruse. 26 The real Suleiman’s heart, liver, and some other organs were buried in a tomb there that became a popular pilgrimage site for Ottoman Muslims; the rest of his remains were taken back to Constantinople—which the Ottomans often referred to as Istanbul (“ to the city” in Greek) or, using the Turkish cognate, Konstantiniyye—and buried there. 27 Russia and a Canal Suleiman’s successor as sultan and caliph, Selim II, immediately faced new challenges. In 1552, the Russian czar Ivan the Terrible annexed the Central Asian Tatar khanate of Kazan; in 1556 he likewise incorporated the Astrakhan khanate into his domains. A large number of Muslims came under Russian rule. In 1567, he built a fort on the River Terek in the Caucasus. Muslims in the area appealed to Selim for help, claiming that because the Russians controlled Astrakhan, they could not safely make the pilgrimage to Mecca, as the route now required they pass through Russian domains. 28 In 1571, the Tatars raided Moscow, yet failed to repeat that victory the following year, and had to give up hope of reconquering the area. 29 Searching for a way to enable the Muslims of the Caucasus and Central Asia to make the pilgrimage to Mecca without running afoul of the Russians, an Ottoman imperial official sent this order to the governor of Egypt: Because the accursed Portuguese are everywhere, owing to their hostilities against India, and the routes by which Muslims come to the Holy Places are obstructed and, moreover, it is not considered lawful for people of Islam to live under the power of miserable infidels… you are to gather together all the expert architects and engineers of that place… and investigate the land between the Mediterranean and Red Seas and… report where it is possible to make a canal in that desert place and how long it would be and how many boats could pass side-by-side. 30 The canal was not built. But the idea of one remained alive. Cyprus and a Treaty Selim II was known to have a fondness for wine—so much fondness, in fact, that he has gone down in history as Selim the Sot. His favorite wine came from the island of Cyprus, which was under the control of the Republic of Venice. 31 And so in 1571, the Ottomans accused the Venetians of aiding pirates from Cyprus that attacked Ottoman vessels and seized the island. This was in violation of a peace treaty that Selim had concluded with the Venetians, but a Muslim cleric issued a fatwa for Selim, explaining that a peace treaty with infidels could be set aside for the greater good of Islam. A land was previously in the realm of Islam. After a while the abject infidels overran it, destroyed the colleges and mosques, and left them vacant. They filled the pulpits and galleries with the tokens of infidelity and error, intending to insult the religion of Islam with all kinds of vile deeds, and by spreading their ugly acts to all corners of the earth.… When peace was previously concluded with other lands in possession of the said infidels, the aforenamed land was included. An explanation is sought as to whether, in accordance with the [sacred law], this is an impediment to the Sultan’s determining to break the treaty. ANSWER: There is no possibility that it could ever be an impediment. For the Sultan of the people of Islam (may God glorify his victories) to make peace with the infidels is legal only where there is benefit to all Muslims. When there is no benefit, peace is never legal. When a benefit has been seen, and it is then observed to be more beneficial to break it, then to break it becomes absolutely obligatory and binding. 32 Lepanto The Sublime Porte (as the Ottoman central government was known) financed the Cyprus campaign by selling monasteries and churches out from under the Christians who owned them. 33 But Selim the Sot was to pay a heavy price for his Cyprus wine: in response to the Ottoman action in Cyprus, Pope Pius V called another Crusade and formed the Holy League, which consisted of the Papal States, Spain, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Knights of Malta, the Duchy of Savoy, and several Italian duchies, and was intent upon destroying the Ottoman Empire as a maritime power. On October 7, 1571, the Holy League and the Ottomans, both with over two hundred ships, met in what was until then the largest sea battle ever at Lepanto, in the caliphate’s domains in Greece. The commander of the Christian forces, Don John of Austria, told his men just before the battle: “My children, we are here to conquer or to die as Heaven may determine. Do not let our impious foe ask us, ‘Where is your God?’ Fight in His holy name and in death or in victory you will win immortality.” 34 It was to be in victory. The Christian triumph was total: the Ottoman fleet was completely destroyed, and as many as forty thousand jihadis were killed. Eyewitnesses recalled that the sea was red with blood. 35 For the first time in a major battle, the Christian Europeans had defeated the Ottomans, and there was rejoicing throughout Europe. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, the author of Don Quixote, lost his left hand at Lepanto and was known thereafter as El Manco de Lepanto, that is, the One-Handed One of Lepanto. Referring to his own injury, and himself in the third person, Cervantes said: “Although it looks ugly, he holds it for lovely, because he received it on the most memorable and lofty occasion which past centuries have beheld—nor do those [centuries] to come hope to see the like.” 36 He recalled the Battle of Lepanto as “that day so fortunate to Christendom when all nations were undeceived of their error in believing that the Turks were invincible.” 37 When Pope Pius V heard the news, he thought of Don John of Austria and murmured words from the New Testament: “There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.” 38 When he learned of the catastrophic defeat, Selim was enraged, and declared that he was going to order that all the Christians in his domains be executed. 39 But cooler heads prevailed, and this order was not issued. By the time the grand vizier Mehmed Sokullu met with Barbaro, the ambassador from the Republic of Venice to the sultanate, in Constantinople a few days after the battle, the Ottomans were determinedly downplaying the significance of the battle. “You come to see how we bear our misfortune,” said Sokullu to Barbaro. “But I would have you know the difference between your loss and ours. In wresting Cyprus from you, we deprived you of an arm; in defeating our fleet, you have only shaved our beard. An arm when cut off cannot grow again; but a shorn beard will grow all the better for the razor.” 40 The Ottomans did indeed rebuild their fleet, and the Holy League was not able to follow up on this victory with further effective strikes against the caliphate. The shorn beard did indeed grow back. Nonetheless, Lepanto became a celebrated name throughout Europe and was clear proof that the Ottomans could, after all, be beaten. The last casualty of Selim the Sot’s seizure of Cyprus was Selim himself. In 1574 he visited a Turkish bath, where he drank a whole bottle of his prized wine from Cyprus. Soon after, he slipped on the marble floor and cracked his skull, dying at age fifty. 41 His successor, Murad III, was enamored of women as much as Selim was of wine, to the degree that the price for sex slaves in the slave markets of Constantinople doubled as the demand from the imperial court alone began to exceed the supply. Murad was the father of over a hundred children. 42 Murad was also mindful of jihad, launching an attack against Shi’ite Persia in 1578 that included the Ottoman seizure of Christian Georgia, where the Muslims quickly converted the churches into mosques. 43 In 1587, Murad seized the Church of the Pammakristos in Konstantiniyye, which had been the seat of the patriarchate of Constantinople since the fall of the city in 1453, and converted it into the Mosque of Victory (Fethiye Camii). 44 The jihad against Europe also continued, when it was possible to continue it amid increasing political instability. At Keresztes in northern Hungary in 1596, the Ottomans under Sultan Mehmet III, bearing the standard of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, decisively defeated a Christian force of thirty thousand men. 45 Ten years later, however, the Ottomans concluded a treaty with Habsburg Austria that demonstrated how weak the sultanate had become. In the past, when temporary truces had been concluded between the Ottomans and Austria, they had been contemptuously headed “Graciously accorded by the Sultan, ever victorious, to the infidel King of Vienna, ever vanquished.” 46 This new treaty, however, treated the Ottoman sultan and the Austrian emperor as equals. And the decline continued. In 1621, the seventeen-year-old Osman II, who had become sultan upon the deposition of his uncle Mustafa the Mad (whose nickname reveals the reason for the deposition), led a jihad force against Poland, but was so ignominiously defeated that the janissaries deposed him as well. He was murdered soon afterward. 47 New Rigor After a period of lax enforcement, in 1631 the sultan Murad IV attempted to ensure that the Ottoman decline was not a result of incurring the divine wrath by lax enforcement of the Sharia. He issued a decree restating the dress restrictions for dhimmis, to ensure that they would “feel themselves subdued” (Qur’an 9: 29): Insult and humiliate infidels in garment, clothing and manner of dress according to Muslim law and imperial statute. Henceforth, do not allow them to mount a horse, wear sable fur, sable fur caps, satin and silk velvet. Do not allow their women to wear mohair caps wrapped in cloth and “Paris” cloth. Do not allow infidels and Jews to go about in Muslim manner and garment. Hinder and remove these kinds. Do not lose a minute in executing the order that I have proclaimed in this manner. 48 Murad may have believed that this had worked in 1638 when he defeated the Safavids and took Baghdad (which the Persians had seized back from the Ottomans in 1623). And indeed, the fortunes of the empire began to turn, if ever so slightly. His successor, the sultan Ibrahim, in 1645 took the jihad back to Christian Europe once again, after pirates operating from Malta captured a Turkish ship on which was one of his favorite sex slaves. 49 Ibrahim, in a wild fury, ordered the killing of all the Christians in Ottoman domains. Once his noblemen talked him out of that, he ordered that all Christian ambassadors to the Ottoman Empire be imprisoned, and upon learning that the Maltese pirates were French, contemplated jihad against France. France, however, was far away; Crete, a possession of the Republic of Venice, was closer. Ibrahim decided to seize it, but in the end, it took the Ottomans twenty-four years to do so. 50 Worries about the divine wrath returned in 1660, when a fire destroyed much of Constantinople. The Ottomans blamed the city’s Jews and expelled them from the city. Inscribed in the royal mosque in the city was a reference to Muhammad’s expulsion of the Jews from Medina; the mosque’s endowment deed includes a reference to “the Jews who are the enemy of Islam.” 51 Allah’s wrath, presumably, was averted once again. Sobieski to the Rescue With the jihad for Crete finally concluded successfully, the Ottomans again moved against Poland, this time more successfully than before. In 1672, the sultan Mehmet IV defeated a substantial Polish force and won significant territorial concessions north of the Black Sea. The Polish king Jan Sobieski would not, however, accept this, and went to war with the Ottomans again four years later. Again the sultanate was victorious, winning even more territory than it had before. 52 Jan Sobieski, although forced in 1676 to accept the terms of a humiliating peace treaty, was still not willing to accept this as a result. He would be heard from again. His third chance came in the late summer of 1683, when Mehmet IV assembled a large force of jihad warriors and set forth once more into Europe, intent upon succeeding in bringing it to heel where his illustrious forbears had failed. At Osijek in the Ottoman domains of Croatia, the forces of the Hungarian anti-Habsburg count Emmerich Tekeli joined the Ottomans. Tekeli was the sultan’s vassal king of western Hungary, set up to challenge and harass the Habsburgs. Tekeli’s troops carried a standard inscribed “For God and Country” and “Kruczes,” or “men of the cross,” thereby earning Tekeli a place among the long list of Christian servants of the jihad, going back to Count Julian and continuing to Pope Francis. 53 Mehmet’s grand vizier, Kara Mustafa, urged him to try again to take Vienna, arguing that it was the key to the conquest of Europe and that if he conquered it, “all the Christians would obey the Ottomans.” 54 The jihadis duly placed Vienna under siege once again but did not count on Jan Sobieski, who hurried to the city with a relief force. Approaching Vienna, Sobieski saw the arrangement of the sultan’s forces around the city and remarked, “This man is badly encamped. He knows nothing of war, we shall certainly defeat him.” 55 In the dawn hours of September 12, he did. His forces descended upon the surprised jihadis with fury, with Jan Sobieski himself leading the charge. As the Polish king approached the very heart of the Muslim camp, the Tatar khan, another vassal of Mehmet IV, saw him and exclaimed in shock and horror: “By Allah! The King really is among us!” 56 The Ottoman siege was decisively broken, and Christendom once again saved. The warriors of jihad fled in confusion. Four years later, the Ottomans made one last stand in Central Europe, facing the Austrians at Mohacs, where they had won such a decisive victory in 1526. But these were no longer the days of Suleiman the Magnificent. The warriors of jihad were beaten so badly that Austria established control over much of Hungary and threatened Ottoman holdings in the Balkans. The jihadis would not return to the heart of Europe for several centuries. When they did once more strike the West, it was in the New World metropolises of New York and Washington. The day of that strike was September 11, 2001. Many have speculated that the mastermind of that jihad decided to set it on the anniversary of the high-water mark of the jihadi advance into Europe, the day before the defeat of the jihadis and the acceleration of the Ottoman decline set in motion the chain of events that would lead to the jihad’s becoming a dim memory in the West. In any case, after Vienna, Europe would, for a considerable time, get a respite.”
— The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS by Robert Spencer
— The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS by Robert Spencer
“THE RISE OF JIHAD MOVEMENTS The Muslim Brotherhood: The Qur’an and the Sword Determined to fight Western influence and restore the caliphate, Hasan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928. Al-Banna decried the abolition of the caliphate, which separated “the state from religion in a country which was until recently the site of the Commander of the Faithful.” Al-Banna characterized it as just part of a larger “Western invasion which was armed and equipped with all [the] destructive influences of money, wealth, prestige, ostentation, power and means of propaganda.” 37 He saw this Western influence as all-pervasive. Al-Banna lamented that “a wave of dissolution which undermined all firm beliefs, was engulfing Egypt in the name of intellectual emancipation. This trend attacked the morals, deeds and virtues under the pretext of personal freedom. Nothing could stand against this powerful and tyrannical stream of disbelief and permissiveness that was sweeping our country.” 38 Like Islamic movements going back to Ibn Tumart’s and those before him, Al-Banna’s was a revivalist movement. In 1928, al-Banna decried the indifference of the Egyptian elite to Islam: “What catastrophe has befallen the souls of the reformers and the spirit of the leaders…? What calamity has made them prefer this life to the thereafter [sic]? What has made them… consider the way of struggle [sabil al-jihad] too rough and difficult?” 39 When the Brotherhood was criticized for being a political group in the guise of a religious one, al-Banna met the challenge head-on: We summon you to Islam, the teachings of Islam, the laws of Islam and the guidance of Islam, and if this smacks of “politics” in your eyes, then it is our policy. And if the one summoning you to these principles is a “politician,” then we are the most respectable of men, God be praised, in politics.… Islam does have a policy embracing the happiness of this world.… We believe that Islam is an all-embracing concept which regulates every aspect of life, adjudicating on every one of its concerns and prescribing for it a solid and rigorous order. 40 The Brotherhood invoked the Qur’an—“ Fight them until there is no fitnah [sedition] and worship is for Allah” (2: 193)—in exhorting Muslims worldwide to recapture the glory days of Islam, to reestablish the caliphate and once again make it into a great power. Al-Banna also insisted that “every piece of land where the banner of Islam has been hoisted is the fatherland of the Muslims.” In line with another Qur’anic directive, “drive them out from where they drove you out” (2: 191), the Brotherhood urged Muslims to reconquer Spain, as well as Sicily and southern Italy and the former Ottoman domains in the Balkans. 41 The Brotherhood grew in Egypt from 150 branches in 1936 to as many as fifteen hundred by 1944. In 1939 al-Banna referred to “100,000 pious youths from the Muslim Brothers from all parts of Egypt,” and by 1944 membership was estimated as being between one hundred thousand and five hundred thousand. 42 By 1937 the group had expanded beyond Egypt, setting up “several branches in Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, and Morocco, and one each in Bahrain, Hadramawt, Hyderabad, Djibouti, and even in Paris.” 43 Thus many thousands of Muslims dispersed around the world heard al-Banna’s call to “prepare for jihad and be lovers of death.” 44 The Muslim Brotherhood’s newspaper explained: “No justice will be dealt and no peace maintained on earth until the rule of the Koran and the bloc of Islam are established. Moslem unity must be established. Indonesia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Trans-Jordan, Palestine, Saudi-Arabia, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria and Morocco all form one bloc, the Moslem bloc, which God has promised to grant victory, saying: ‘We shall grant victory unto the faithful.’ But this is impossible to reach other than through the way of Islam.” 45 Al-Banna told his followers: “Islam is faith and worship, a country and a citizenship, a religion and a state. It is spirituality and hard work. It is a Qur’an and a sword.” 46 Islam, the Answer to the World’s Problems The Armenian-American journalist Arthur Derounian met al-Banna in 1948. Writing later under the name John Roy Carlson, Derounian described al-Banna as “a short, squat ratty-faced man with puffed cheeks and fleshy nose.… We sat in the shade, under the shield showing the Koran above a pair of crossed swords.… I disliked him instantly and thoroughly. He was the most loathsome man I had yet met in Cairo.” 47 Al-Banna told Derounian: “The Koran should be Egypt’s constitution, for there is no law higher than Koranic law. We seek to fulfill the lofty, human message of Islam which has brought happiness and fulfillment to mankind in centuries past. Ours is the highest ideal, the holiest cause and the purest way. Those who criticize us have fed from the tables of Europe. They want to live as Europe has taught them—to dance, to drink, to revel, to mix the sexes openly and in public.” 48 Sayyid Qutb, the Muslim Brotherhood’s great theorist, shared that puritanical revulsion. He sharpened his distaste for the West while living in the United States from November 1948 to August 1950.49 Moving to Greeley, Colorado, he was impressed by the number of churches in the city but not with the piety they engendered: “Nobody goes to church as often as Americans do.… Yet no one is as distant as they are from the spiritual aspect of religion.” He was thoroughly scandalized by a dance after an evening service at a local church: “The dancing intensified.… The hall swarmed with legs.… Arms circled arms, lips met lips, chests met chests, and the atmosphere was full of love.” 50 The pastor further scandalized Qutb by dimming the lights, creating “a romantic, dreamy effect,” and playing a popular record of the day: “Baby, It’s Cold Outside.” 51 He regarded American popular music in general with a gimlet eye: “Jazz is the favorite music [of America]. It is a type of music invented by [American] Blacks to please their primitive tendencies and desire for noise.” 52 Ultimately he concluded: “I fear that when the wheel of life has turned and the file on history has closed, America will not have contributed anything.” He didn’t find American prosperity to be matched by a corresponding wealth of spirit. “I am afraid that there is no correlation between the greatness of the American material civilization and the men who created it.… In both feeling and conduct the American is primitive [bida’a].” 53 Qutb’s influential book Milestones positioned Islam as the true source of societal and personal order, as opposed to both capitalism and Communism. “Mankind today is on the brink of a precipice,” he asserted in this Cold War–era manifesto, “not because of the danger of complete annihilation which is hanging over its head—this being just a symptom and not the real disease—but because humanity is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but also for its real progress.” Perhaps with his time in America in mind, he went on: “Even the Western world realizes that Western civilization is unable to present any healthy values for the guidance of mankind. It knows that it does not possess anything which will satisfy its own conscience and justify its existence.” Qutb concluded: “It is essential for mankind to have new leadership!” 54 That new leadership would come from Islam. To Qutb, what the Muslim umma needed was a restoration of Islam in its fullness and purity, including all the rules of the Sharia for regulating society. “If we look at the sources and foundations of modern ways of living, it becomes clear that the whole world is steeped in Jahiliyyah [Ignorance of the Divine guidance], and all the marvelous material comforts and high-level inventions do not diminish this ignorance. This Jahiliyyah is based on rebellion against God’s sovereignty on earth. It transfers to man one of the greatest attributes of God, namely sovereignty, and makes some men lords over others.” 55 He advanced Islam as “a challenge to all kinds and forms of systems which are based on the concept of the sovereignty of man; in other words, where man has usurped the Divine attribute. Any system in which the final decisions are referred to human beings, and in which the sources of all authority are human, deifies human beings by designating others than God as lords over men.” 56 Qutb taught that jihad was necessary in order to establish Sharia. “The establishing of the dominion of God on earth, the abolishing of the dominion of man, the taking away of sovereignty from the usurper to revert it to God, and the bringing about of the enforcement of the Divine Law [Sharia]… and the abolition of man-made laws cannot be achieved only through preaching. Those who have usurped the authority of God and are oppressing God’s creatures are not going to give up their power merely through preaching; if it had been so, the task of establishing God’s religion in the world would have been very easy for the Prophets of God! This is contrary to the evidence from the history of the Prophets and the story of the struggle of the true religion, spread over generations.” 57 Qutb emphasized Islam’s universal character and call: “This religion is not merely a declaration of the freedom of the Arabs, nor is its message confined to the Arabs. It addresses itself to the whole of mankind, and its sphere of work is the whole earth.… This religion wants to bring back the whole world to its Sustainer and free it from servitude to anyone other than God.” 58 Al-Banna likewise explained: “We want an Arabian United States with a Caliphate at its head and every Arab state subscribing wholeheartedly to the laws of the Koran. We must return to the Koran, which preaches the good life, which forbids us to take bribes, to cheat, to kill one’s brother. The laws of the Koran are suitable for all men at all times to the end of the world. This is the day and this is the time when the world needs Islam most.” 59 To impress upon Egypt its need for Islam, the Brotherhood attacked Jews who lived there and assassinated several leading officials, including several judges. Al-Banna ordered one young member of the Brotherhood, a twenty-three-year-old student named Abdel Magid Ahmed Hassan, to do his duty before Allah—which, a sheikh explained to the young man, involved killing “the enemies of Islam and of Arabism.” Hassan agreed to murder anyone al-Banna told him to, and so on December 28, 1948, the young man gunned down Egypt’s prime minister, Mahmoud El Nokrashy Pasha. 60 Al-Banna was himself assassinated on February 12, 1949, most likely in a revenge killing. 61 Qutb, hospitalized in Washington, D.C. for a respiratory ailment in February 1949, claimed implausibly that a radio broadcast of the news of al-Banna’s assassination set the hospital staff to open rejoicing. 62 Egypt’s Arab Socialist ruler, Gamel Abdel Nasser, had no patience for the Brotherhood, and had Qutb imprisoned and tortured. Qutb wrote from his prison cell: “The whole of Egypt is imprisoned.… I was arrested despite my immunity as a judge, without an order of arrest… my sole crime being my critique of the non-application of the Sharia.” 63 As his trial began, he declared: “The time has come for a Muslim to give his head in order to proclaim the birth of the Islamic movement.” 64 When he was sentenced to death, he exclaimed: “Thank God! I performed jihad for fifteen years until I earned this martyrdom.” 65 He was executed in 1966.”
— The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS by Robert Spencer
— The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS by Robert Spencer
“I am a Palestinian Arab, born in Haifa, Israel. My father was a wealthy merchant who inherited and carried on the family business of growing and exporting produce to Great Britain. He was a respected leader in the community, a good father, and a devout Muslim who strictly observed the tenets of Islam. I do not remember much of the home where I lived as a young Palestinian boy, but I do remember my family talking about a big white house in the midst of huge old olive trees overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. After the partitioning of Palestine, Haifa became part of the newly created state of Israel. Being a proud Muslim, Dad refused to live in Israel. So I was the last child in the family to be born in Haifa. My dad arranged for us all to get on a fishing boat, and we set out to our new destination—the island of Cyprus. The family grew to a total of five boys and five girls when three more siblings were born in Cyprus. We found favor in the eyes of the locals. We soon learned to speak their languages, Greek and Turkish. Cyprus is predominantly Catholic, so it was natural for us to attend the Catholic elementary school, which I entered at the age of six, along with my brother who was two years older than me, and, later, my younger sister. Being a proud Muslim, Dad refused to live in Israel. Education was very important to my family. My oldest brother, Muhammad, taught himself English and then enrolled in an American correspondence school. He eventually won a scholarship to Ohio Wesleyan University, in the United States, and later earned a master’s degree in mathematics from the University of Arizona. Remarkably, he secured a job as professor of mathematics at Ohio Northern University. Another of my brothers received a scholarship from Wilmington College in Ohio. After graduating, he earned his master’s from the University of Dayton in Ohio. He held the high jump record at the English school for about 15 years after his graduation. He, too, taught mathematics, at a junior college in Columbus, Ohio. He later married, had three children, and entered the real estate market, and is now a wealthy entrepreneur. My youngest sister mastered nine language The Tumor Meanwhile, back in Cyprus in my senior year in high school, a lump began to appear on my right thigh and kept growing. In the beginning, it gave me no pain whatsoever, and I used to make it move by poking it with my finger. At first, we thought nothing of it—perhaps it was a sports injury that would soon go away. However, it did not go away. It continued to increase to the size of a baseball and began to hurt, especially when I walked. It was finally diagnosed as a malignant tumor. The doctor recommended immediate amputation of my leg to prevent the cancer from spreading to my vital organs and causing my death. A second opinion by a specialist convinced my dad to sign papers authorizing the amputation. I was then moved to the intensive care unit and scheduled to undergo the amputation a few days later—a day or two before Christmas. Then, unexpectedly, the day before the operation my mother checked me out of the hospital, ignoring the doctor’s warning that I would be dead in a few weeks. I was moved to the intensive care unit and scheduled to undergo the amputation a few days later. I still remember the little Turkish coffee cup that Mom used to draw olive oil out of a large vase. In fact, it was the largest vase I have seen in my life. When I was seven or eight years old, it was as high as I was tall. I later learned it held over 50 gallons of oil. We had two such vases; one held only olive oil, and the other held olives aged in olive oil, garlic, and herbs. After checking me out of the hospital, it was from this large vase my mom massaged a cup of oil into the tumor of my bedridden body several times a day. Mom never cried in front me, but I would often hear her sobbing and notice the redness in her eyes when she would come into my room. Yet she would give me hope and promised me that I would not die and that I would grow up and have children of my own some day. Within a few days, she noticed that the tumor had begun shrinking. After two weeks of massaging this olive oil, the tumor had shrunk enough to allow me to bend my leg, and shortly after, it went away completely! The faith of a loving mother is contagious. Six months after my recovery with a second chance at life, I bid my family and my adopted homeland farewell, and left under scholarship for college in the United States. My priority, like the rest of my family, was education. I planned to complete my studies, get my Bachelor of Arts degree, and then attend law school at Ohio Northern University in Ada, Ohio. I was going to be an attorney. During my sophomore year, I met a girl of whom I became quite fond. She spoke much about her Christian faith. I made it clear to her that I was a Muslim and I was not interested in any other religion. There were no mosques nearby in my city, but that did not matter because like all Muslims, my entire life was patterned after my faith in Islam. My college years were during the “hippie” generation. My belief kept me from doing drugs and other things that were going on at that time. My roommate in college was a cocaine addict. He tried many times to get me to “just try it one time.” I never did. I went to clubs with friends but never had any alcoholic beverages, and I never smoked “grass.” The fact is that I was not even tempted to do so. I knew my religion forbade it and that was good enough for me. I Saw a Miracle The girl I was dating became unbearable when a “faith healer” set up his tent close to the college campus, babbling on and on about miracles and healings. I was convinced he could be nothing more than a charlatan preying on naïve people. Nevertheless, I liked the girl, so I went to the tent meeting with her. The flamboyant man, who looked to me more like an Elvis Presley impersonator than a minister, had taken a young child with a deformed leg and placed him on the stage declaring that Jesus was going to heal him. He called out for any agnostics and skeptics present, especially students (since this was a college town), to come on the stage to get a closer look. I did not hesitate and went up for a closer look. The child was a young boy no more than six or seven years old. His right leg was in some sort of leather brace, but his leg was clearly visible through this contraption. It was much thinner and shorter than the healthy one. The preacher sat him on a chair and removed the brace. He extended both of the child’s legs, supporting them with his left hand. I could see that the withered leg was three to four inches shorter than the normal one. The preacher picked up a microphone with his right hand, and he began to pray, asking Jesus to heal the little boy. The audience, as if on cue, suddenly rose from their seats and extended their hands toward the stage. In an instant that startled me, the withered leg extended itself to the same length of the other leg! Just as suddenly as it grew, it stopped growing. Then, as if someone blew air into it, like blowing air into a balloon, the leg “puffed up” and looked just like the healthy one! Apparently, the incident also startled the child. It took him a few moments to get his bearings and stand on both legs. He took a few clumsy steps and then seemed to gain confidence with each step. Soon after, he was running full throttle around the tent as the audience cheered him on. Deeply impacted by this miracle I witnessed with my own eyes, I was down on my knees sobbing and weeping uncontrollably. It was spectacular! Awesome, to say the least. I am not exactly sure what happened to me next or how it happened. Deeply impacted by this miracle I witnessed with my own eyes, I was down on my knees sobbing and weeping uncontrollably. My consciousness was arrested by thoughts of Jesus and my heart was searching for answers. I didn’t believe in miracles, and Muhammad the prophet of Islam never performed miracles. My Muslim mind could not process what had just taken place. I had no idea what a profound impact this would have on my life and where it would lead me. My Family Disowns Me I did not tell my family about the experience. But to myself I kept thinking that if Jesus had healed that boy’s leg, that had to mean that Jesus is alive! The only person I confided in was my brother who attended the Catholic school with me when we were kids. He just tried to talk me out of it. He told me he was sure it would all go away as if nothing ever happened. He told me to stop talking about Jesus and this miracle. I tried speaking to him a couple more times, but his response was the same: Renounce and forget about Jesus and continue to walk in the path of Islam. At that time I considered myself a Muslim, but I still could not renounce the possibility of the reality of Jesus; it was not even within my power to do so. Jesus never left my thoughts after the tent experience. Not even for a second. Some might think this is an exaggeration, but it wasn’t. I had seen too much. The only explanation was that Jesus had healed that boy! When my family was finally told what had happened at the tent meeting, they tried to persuade me to pretend it never happened. But I simply could not do so. Ultimately, and because of my profound reaction to this experience, my family disowned me. My dad explained to me why he had to do what he did. I told him I understood. The only explanation was that Jesus had healed that boy! Shortly after this, my friends, my family, and everyone I had known all my life seemed to conveniently disappear. Somehow my life did not matter anymore. I needed to try and sort things out and sought comfort in solitude. I felt restless and just wanted to get away, but I had nowhere to go. Only one place came to mind—a small town in the suburbs of Birmingham, Alabama. I had briefly met an older couple at the tent meeting. They told me how pretty the South was—the terrain, the trees—and that they lived close to the vicinity of a spectacular view the locals call “God’s Country” in Gadsden, Alabama. They had given me their address and asked me to come visit them should I ever be in the vicinity. My friends, my family, and everyone I had known all my life seemed to conveniently disappear. With nowhere else to go, I started heading toward their house in Alabama, while still undecided as to whether I should go or not. I just kept driving, too restless to stay put. After a couple days of driving, and about 1,000 miles later, I found myself driving through very dense forest that was scarcely populated on my way toward their home. I drove for almost 30 minutes in this forest. The scenery was breathtaking—especially when compared to the two-dimensional terrain back in Ohio. The only thing that reminded me that people must have been living close by was a little, white, wood frame country church on a deserted dirt road in the woods, right in the middle of nowhere. I had no intention of stopping, but something made me—perhaps the serenity, perhaps the solitude, or both. But now I know, due to what followed, it had to have been God leading me. My Quest for Truth It was around noon on a Sunday when I pulled up to this very small country church. It couldn’t have seated more than 50 people, though there were less than a dozen cars in the church’s rough parking lot and only about two dozen people in attendance. The minister was a woman of some age who introduced herself as Sister Prince. It had to have been God leading me.”
— 10 Amazing Muslims Touched by God by Faisal Malick
— 10 Amazing Muslims Touched by God by Faisal Malick
Saturday, January 18, 2020
NEW REAL IRANIAN REVOLUTION IS UNDERWAY
The time has come for Iranian people to realize that Islamic Republic of Iran is a despotic, occupier, and an evil regime that tries to destroy Iranian people and their culture and civilization. For the Islamic Republic Government of Iran to stay in power, it is easy to kill, imprison, and torture as many citizens as possible in order to keep everybody quiet and obeying. Iranian people should be conscious and aware that the same way that during the first revolution a bunch of Marxist, socialist and communist groups united with a group of fanatic back warded clergies and their associates cooperated with each other with the foreign influences to overthrow the rightful government of Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi, right at the eve of evolving and transforming toan advanced industrialized society. The governments of Reza Shah Pahlavi during sixteen yearsalready transformed Iranian society from a bac-warded third world country to a modern advanced society with new social, economic, political, educational organization along with an advanced infrastructure including railroads, highways, and bridges all across the country to facilitate transportation for Iranian people. Examples are Veresk Bridge for trains to be able to pass from a mountain to the next and Tunnel of Kandovan and many others Tunnels across the country.
In addition to facilitating transportation for people, Reza Shah established elementary, secondary schools and colleges including the famous University of Tehran for Iranian young generations to be educated. Many new medical establishments and hospital have been constructed and school of Nursing as well as physicians has been educated to satisfy the medical needs of Iranian People. A formal military organization has been established for defending the country and a mandatory military service for young men who would turn eighteen years of age. Police departments were created to maintain the security of citizens in different cities. Several army and Police colleges and universities have been established. The equality of right for men and women has been created and for the first time both men and women began to receive education and work in different departments in the country. Reza Shah also ordered women to take their back warded covers that belonged to Arab cultures and walk in normal outfit in the streets, schools and colleges as well as at work places. There are many other new institutions and organizations that have been established by Reza Shah the great which pushed Iranian society forward and created a modern Iran.
During the Mohammed Reza Shah Government in Iran many other innovations have been introduced, Iranian Oil has been nationalized and foreign intervention in Iranian internal affairs has been reduced which cost some foreign countries such as British Government millions of Dollars. Thus, the same way that they tried to get rid of Reza shah the great, they tried to get rid of the Mohammed Reza shah. In fact, British government tried to assassinate the Shah several times. Then, British Government and some other countries such as France and others prepared Khomeini a back warded clergy that hated Iran, Iranian People, and the Monarchy to come to Iran and completely destroy Iranian people their culture and civilization., Even to this date under the government t of Islamic Republic of Iran and its uneducated, cruel, and evil leader, they are trying to further destroy Iranian culture for the sake of man- made religion of Islam, influenced by a back warded culture of Arabs, that bring nothing but war, jihad and destruction of human civilization. If we study countries that Islam is ruling over people, you see that people don’t have their freedom. They are back warded and poor. The only reason they stayed in power is their natural resources. If the natural resources are gone these societies will turn into deserts, ruins and nothing.
Iranian people are victims of Islamic Government of Iran which tried to use the laws of fourteen hundred years ago in modern time and stopped Iranian people from advancing toward modernism and a happy life with freedom, democracy and dignity. The main problem in Iran is the intervention of religious beliefs that are not in line with modern society and its natural evolution and stop people from innovations, creativity and advancement. The only solution for people of Iran to have their freedom, human rights, and dignity is a new real revolution.However, Iranian people should be smart and alert that now that this revolution is under way and the train of revolution already started its engine, they should try to put it on the right path and do not deviate from it which means Iranian people should not let their new real revolution to be confiscated by enemies of Iranian people and their associates like the first revolution.
We should distinguish between the processes of change within the Islamic system of government and the processes of the system itself in general. Islamic Republic of Islam as a government has not been able to create any positive reforms or changes within forty years of being in power without any adaptive upgrading or adaptive capacity. Islamic Government of Iran inherited many social institutions and organizations with thousands of economic establishments and industrial establishments. But instead of upgrading these establishments, they only continued to obtain incomes without even improving anything within those establishments. After a while many factories and industrial establishments which were managed under several revolutionary organizations such as Jihad Sazandegi, Boninyad Mostazafan, etc., went out of business. Many factories, housing units, and industrial establishments were confiscated and sold to people who were supporting the so called revolutionary government. But those people, who were not experts, didn’t care about those factories and finally they had to close them.
Social Movements which was necessary to occur within Iranian society to change the behavior of the Islamic Republic of Iran has not happened. Social movements can be the source of great dismay and could be considered by the government the source of unjustified disruption and government which is comfortable with the status que, tries to use forces of anti-rebellion, Ploice, Besige and members of Sepah-e-Pasdaran to suppress the social movement. Iranian scattered, less organized, less structured is only a collective behavior that is short term and could not be effective. In order for a collective behavior to be effective, Iranian people should be united, organized, structured and be oriented toward a major change in society and go after the whole social government order in order to overthrow the unwanted regime. There should be different levels of leadership and followers following the same ideology. The clearer the authority structure within the collective group structure, the more organized the social movement.
The time for reform is long overdue. Now is the time for a radical change because it requires the change of the political, social and economic system of theocratic Islamic Government which is not able to create a relaxed, advanced and modern society due to their ancient ideology of Islam that could be partially effective in Saudi Arabia not in Iran which was modernized during Pahlavi Dynasty including both the Reza Shah the great and Mohaamed Reza Shah. This radical change should occur in all segments of Iranian Society. A radical change in the autocratic system is called revolution.
Since the Islamic Republic of Iran was not able to create right reforms due to putting non-expert and uneducated and incompetent people over different organization, most productive economic establishment were destroyed and economy of the country went down the drain. Because of shutting down most economic establishments and factories, people became unemployed and without income. Incompetent and white color crime significantly increased and people who were over different revolutionary organizations began to embezzle, steal money and send it to banks outside the country. When government does not create positive reform to prevent or to eliminate social problems, and citizens are mostly unemployed and without income, poverty level increases and it becomes non-tolerable for people, then the only way people could get out of their miserable daily life is a new revolution.
New revolution in Iran will come out of social and economic imbalances, oppression, and frustrated expectation, as well as wrong and back warded religious leadership, contagious political ideology, mass reaction to social environmental inequality, and becoming aware of their miserable fate. People who are witnessing each other’s misery, poverty, hunger, and being persecuted for artificially labeled crimes, without engaging in any wrong doing, gradually become aware that Islamic Government of Iran is not friend or supporter of the people and its plan is to suppress people and to keep them obeying. The character of the Islamic Republic of Iran makes the new bloody revolution inevitable. The incompetency of the Government Officials and religious leadership, the corruption of the government, the brutality of the guards, police and Besiege; the regime’s neutrality and indifference to the basic needs of the people for education, medical care, housing; social justice; employment and economic opportunities are all an invitation to uprising and bloody revolution. Thus Iran is ripe for a new revolution as I mentioned in my previous article.
The major factors that we should consider as precipitating factors for occurrence of a bloody revolution in Iran are:
(1) Sharp class conflict: Growing polarization between rich and poor. Conflict between the high and middle class clergy groups and high level authorities of Guards, Besige and Army, who took over millions and billions of dollars of money that belonged to Iranian people.
(2) Bankrupted economy: Due to US sanctions and lack of ability of Islamic Government to export oil and gas, Iran’s revenue from the sales of oil and gas was significantly decreased from 12.5 million barrel a day to 200,000.00 barrel a day which crippled the economy of Iran and tied the government authorities hands.
(3) Economic Insecurity of the workers, employees, drivers, teachers across the country who either became unemployed or those who are still working they don’t receive their pays on time to the point that some have not been paid for months.
(4) Governmental and military organizations are becoming incapacitated and broken down, partially because the revolutionary organizations had never fully achieved stability and partly because they were unresponsive to the economic problems posed by a declining oil economy, a problem which had bred dissatisfaction at almost every level of Iranian society.
(5) Structural Strains: the existence of ambiguities, deprivations, tensions, conflicts, and discrepancies among different departments of the Islamic Government and people of Iran in general such as poverty, unemployment, group conflict, and threat of war.
(6) Growth and spread of generalized beliefs which include the source of strain nandpeople’s suggestion for solutions to these problems.
(7) Politically, Iran is an immature society with weak and unstable institutions, organizations and establishments that have not been able to satisfy people’s needs.
(8) Non-political institutions fell into the similar mold. All failed to provide a basis for unity for Iranian fragmented society due to different ethnic groups, people of different religions, or nationalities have not been treated equally.
(9) The intelligence agencies suppressed people of other religion, nationalists, and those who were supporting to have a positive relationship with other countries. They formed a bitter, restless, and alienated majority in Iranian society, which don’t wish to continue living under such an evil government.
(10) Iranian people already had a taste of pervious revolution that has been unsuccessful due to being confiscated by Marxist-Islamic groups. Thus, Iranian people still want to complete their unfinished revolution.
(11) Iranian Government brought in many different groups of mercenaries such as foreign members of Hezbollah from Lebanon, and Iraq, Members of Hashad Shaabi from Iraq, members of Hamas from Palestine, Fatemioon from Afghanistan, Mercenaries from Chechnia, and many other foreign mercenaries to suppress and even kill the Iranian nationalists inside Iran.
(12) The leader of Iran, Khamenei, his sons and other members of leadership group embezzled and stole billions of Dollars and deposited those money in foreign banks and also bought real states, built refineries, universities, housing units, etc. in other countries under their own names so that after they escape from the country, they could spend those money.
(13) The money and income from different Iranian organizations, factories as well as oil and gas revenue are being spent for Khamenei’s ambitious ideals of expanding Islamic revolution to other middle Eastern and African Countries, instead of spending these money on Iranian People.
(14) Iranian society in general is an oppressed and depressed society and most citizens are hopeless, helpless, and worthless due to being treated with disrespect within the past forty years. That is why many young individuals are depressed, addicted to substances, commit suicide or became highly neutral and many try to migrate out of Iran with the hope of a better life situation. But even that is being prevented by Islamic Republic of Iran, Sepah-e-Pasdaran shooting a passenger plan with 176 passenger out of which 144 were Iranian some citizen of Iran, some citizen of Canada and others citizen of other countries. Among these people who were killed by Sepah-e-Pasdaran, 18 individuals were graduates of Industrial University of Sharif which educate elite groups.
(15) Iranian people have developed major anxiety or group anxiety due to be worried for their unknown future and fear of losing everything they possess. That is the main reason for out migration from Iran which started at the beginning of the so called revolution and continued to this date and will continue as long as the cruel Islamic Republic Government of Iran is in power in Iran.
(16) Authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran arte full of superstitions and could be diagnosed as having mass delusions which try to transfer it to their own uneducated, ignorant supporters who are thinking Khamenei and his charlatan cliques would bring the Mahdi or Messiah to save Islamic people. The authorities and high officials are appropriating all the wealth and money to themselves and cash them at present time, while they give their followers the promise of the future, coming of the Mahdi and a false promise of going to paradise with plenty of beautiful women and natural resources, while they could do the opposite by providing Iranian people with the power, prestige and privileges and wealth they deserve in this world when they really need it and if they are right they should wait to go to paradise and have all those goodies. Problem is that they already know that it is them who will be in the middle of hell if there is existence of hell is possible. Authorities of Islamic Republic of Iran are already in the middle of the Hell in this world due to their corruption, cruelty, stealing, embezzlement and denying Iranian citizens with their natural human right and their natural resources. Speaker of the great Satan, Khamenei is already promising people that they will bring the Mahdi or Messiah very soon so they should be satisfied with their miserable life and poverty, while high level religious people, and high level army or military people and their families are experiencing a luxurious life style.
(17) The authorities of Islamic Republic of Iran have a mass cognitive distortion or error in their thinking which their internal ego or internal evil has taken over and does not give them a chance to be unified with their internal consciousness, energy, light or God and let God work through them. Mental selves, egos or internal evil s are full of cognitive distortions, error in thinking, negative emotions and excitement and superstitious thinking that deviates their mind to act as great Satan and representative of evil.
(18) The members of religious, fanatic, and superstitious clergies have a very low emotional intelligence which means they never developed a sense of sympathy or empathy and consequently, they never were able to identify their own emotions or even to understand their own emotions. The problem is for people who are not able to identify their own emotion or understand it, they would not be able to identify or understand other people emotions. Thus, they develop some psychopathic traits that they easily arrest, torture, and kill innocent people without being bothered by their own criminal behaviors.
For Iranian people to feel safe, relax, and secure, this despotic regime full of corruption, cruelty, and destructive power, has to go. Due to lack of any social economic reform and being sanctioned by foreign powers, and the destruction of Iranian economy and major dissatisfaction of Iranian people, revolution is inevitable. But people of Iran have two choices: One civil disobedience, passive –aggressive conduct which gradually crippling the Government organizations and institutions and are already being practiced, and the last resort is a bloody revolution. Problem is that the religious, fanatic, and superstitious Government of Islamic Republic which came to power with the help of Iranian people turned against its own citizens, right after the revolution became successful.
Iranian citizens, who already experience one major revolution and are familiar with many other successful revolutions, should take action as soon as possible to overthrow the despotic and oppressive Islamic Government of Iran which uses the name of Islam for their wrong doings and does not even care about their own religion. Examples of some revolutions are:Cuban revolution, French revolution, Russian revolution, Chinese revolution, Russian revolution, Algerian revolution, Indian civil disobedience, and many more. Iranian whichhave not read the book or seen the video of the “Animal Farm” written by George Orwellshould read the book or see the movie or video that is in an animated form. It explains a social situation that could be related to most revolutions particularly Iranian first revolution and the new upcoming revolution which is already under way. IN this video and animated movie, the farmer represents the previous government of the Shah; the pigs stands for the despotic, cruel clergies; the white pig stands for Khomeini; and the dark pig represent Khamenei, the current religious leader; the nine dogs represents the Guard (Sepah-e Pasdaran) and Besiege; The crow represents the intelligentsia or Savama or ministry of information, and ducks represent the government speakers. All other animals are the masseswhich blindly follow the religious clergies.
Mobilization of Iranian participants for action include the organization of people into a collective actors engaging in a collective behavior of uprising, resistance and crippling of the government controlling force such as the army, police, or government as well as established community leaders, the press, and religious authorities which are elements of constraints and social control. Some of the resources that must be assembled to achieve social movement goal and collective behaviors are: money, people, defensive devices, machines, mass media, organization, technical skills, and power. Some of the stages of collective behaviors are:
(1) The preliminary stage of mass excitement that could be created by an emotional speaker.
(2) The second stage of crowd (Collective) excitement and unrest which should be cumulative and as more as people could participate.
(3) The formal stage of formulation of issues and formation of publics, posters which provide slogans, and give more awareness to the public.
(4) Stage of legalization and establishment of social organization
(5) People should use social media, telephone, computer, internet, people contacting each other in many new ways, fliers, posters, writing on the walls, etc. are some example of people communicating with other people to create a better collective behavior. Creating major traffic jams, cocktail Molotov, oil, gas, substances that makes street sleeper, burning wheels and other combustive material are all effective ways of crippling the controlling army and police groups. People should use protective gears and devices to protect themselves from getting hurt. People should stick together in groups of five people one person should be the leader of the group and everyone should follow his/her instruction.
Iranian People should remember what they did in the first revolution. Use the same strategies but this time with better technologies. The Islamic Republic Government leader, Khamenei who is servant of Arab Culture and uses income from the Iranian natural resources for himself, his family and supporters inside Iran and pays the mercenaries of Arab countries to help him stay in power, has to be overthrown so that Iranian people could obtain the money from their own natural resources and spend it in Iran while maintaining their nationalistic culture and civilization that is being threatened to be destroyed by the treater Islamic Government of Iran.