Wednesday, October 19, 2016

WHITE CHRISTIAN SLAVERY: GEORGIANS IN THE SAFAVID ADMINISTRATION (GEORGIAN IRANIANS)

WHITE CHRISTIAN SLAVERY:  GEORGIANS IN THE SAFAVID ADMINISTRATION (GEORGIAN IRANIANS)

Safavid interaction with Georgia and its inhabitants dates from the inception of the state in the early 16th century, when Georgians fought alongside the Qezelbāš in Shah Esmāʿīl I’s army (Grey, ed., pp. 190, 193; Scarcia Amoretti, p. 61). Under Shah Ṭahmāsb I (930-84/1524-76), Georgians, taken captive during the shah’s four expeditions into Georgia, began to be imported into Safavid territory. Ṭahmāsb’s campaign in 961/1554 is said to have brought thirty thousand people from the Caucasus to Persia (Shah Ṭahmāsb, p. 72; Ḥasan Rūmlū, ed. Navāʾī, p. 492; Eskandar Beg, p. 88). For the most part women and children, these were taken to the harems of the shah and the elite.

Shah ʿAbbās I further enlarged the pool of Georgians in Persia. Thousands were captured and taken south during his various campaigns in the Caucasus between 1023/1614 and 1025/1616. Fifteen thousand families, Muslims, Jews, and Armenians, are said to have been deported from the Georgian capital of Zagam, Šīrvān, and Qarabāḡ and resettled in Faraḥābād in Māzandarān, where they were put to work to develop the area (Eskandar Beg, p. 881, tr. Savory, II, p. 1096; Della Valle, 1843, I, p. 598; Brosset, 1874-76, I, p. 488). According to the Georgian historian Parsadan Gorgidzhanidze and the Frenchman Jean Chardin, eighty thousand families, Georgians, Armenians, and Jews, were deported to Māzandarān and other areas (Gorgidzhanidze, p. 73; Chardin, II, p. 62). Eskandar Beg speaks of 130,000 as the number of Georgians taken to Persia during the campaign of 1025/1616, and Malekšāh Ḥosayn Sīstānī even claims the huge number of 200,000 captives (Eskandar Beg, pp. 900-901, tr. Savory, II, p. 1116; Malekšāh Ḥosayn, p. 509). Into the 19th century, concentrations of transplanted Georgians were still visible throughout Persia (Oberling and sources quoted therein).

The influence and power acquired by the Georgians in this period began in the royal harem, where women from the Caucasus, many of them of Georgian origin, became prominent. No less than four of Shah Ṭahmāsb’s surviving sons were born to him by Georgian wives (Eskandar Beg, p. 133; tr. Savory I, pp. 215-17), and one of his daughters by a Georgian wife, the powerful Zaynab Begom, played an important role at the court of her nephew, Shah ʿAbbās I. According to John Fryer (II, pp. 290-91), the queen mother in the 17th century was always a Georgian. In reality, she was usually Circassian, though the difference is not always clear. Georgian women played an important role in the court’s marriage politics, and by the end of the Safavid reign a whole web of relations had been established (Krusinski, I, p. 122). Krusinski (I, pp. 128-29), inter alia insists that the influence of the Georgian harem women accounted for the Safavid tolerance for the country’s Christian population. Writing in the early 17th century, Pietro Della Valle (1663, p. 8; q.v.) claimed that there was not a household in Persia that did not have its Georgian slaves.

Georgians entered the ranks of the army and the bureaucracy in great numbers as well, turning into the mainstay of ḡolāms, or slave soldiers. Allāhverdī Khan (q.v.), an Armenian from Georgia, served as the army’s commander-in-chief for more than fifteen years (1004-22/1595-1613). During the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I, most of the soldiers equipped with firearms were Georgians, their integration into the army facilitated by the relative ease with which they apparently gave up their religion and converted to Islam (Della Valle, 1843, I, p. 760; Kaempfer, p. 273). A total of thirty thousand Georgians are said to have served in Shah ʿAbbās’s army (Della Valle, 1663, p. 8). Georgians soon occupied administrative positions of the highest rank. Shah ʿAbbās in 998/1590 created the qollar (slave) corps, consisting of Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians, and its leader, the qollar-āqāsī, became one of the principal state officials (Eskander Beg II, p. 1106, tr. I, p. 527; Jonābādī, p. 716; Savory, p. 419; Taḏkerat al-molūk, tr. Minorsky, pp. 33, 46-47). Allāhverdī Khan was one of the first to hold this post. In the 1630s its incumbent was the equally powerful Ḵosrow Mīrzā (Rostam Khan), who has resided at the Safavid court since the days of Sultan Ḵodā-banda.

Many provinces also fell under Georgian control. The first Georgian to occupy the governorship of a major province was Allāhverdī Khan, who in 1003-4/1595-96 received Fārs (Kūhgīlūya was added to his domain a year later). His son, Emāmqolī Khan (q.v.), succeeded him as the governor (beglerbegī) of Fārs and ruled that province until Shah Ṣafī had him and his family executed in 1042/1632. Šīrvān/Šarvān was another of the provinces to which Georgian governors were appointed. In 1013/1605 Shah ʿAbbās sent Constantin (Konstandīl) Mīrzā, the son of the Georgian king Alexander, to head this region. Emāmqolī Khan’s brother, Dāwūd Beg, served as governor of Qarabāḡ between 1037/1627 and 1040/1630 (Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 51; Eskander Beg and Wāla, p. 81; Mollā Jalāl-al-Dīn, pp. 275-76; Gorgidzhanidze, p. 85; Alonso, pp. 56, 105, 107). Golāms ruled Šūštar from 1042/1632 until the last days of the Safavids (Šūštarī, pp. 46-47). Ṣafīqolī Khan, the governor of Hamadān, was appointed beglerbegī of Baghdad following Shah ʿAbbās’s conquest of the city in 1033/1622-23 (Eskander Beg, p. 1004, tr. Savory II p. 1226-27). Georgia itself continued to be governed by a Georgian after the Safavid conquest, following an agreement between Shah ʿAbbās and Taimuraz (Ṭahmūraṯ) Khan, its last independent ruler, whereby the latter submitted to Safavid rule in exchange for being allowed to rule as the region’s wālī and for having his son serve as dārūḡa (city prefect) of Isfahan in perpetuity (Chardin, X, p. 29; Kaempfer, pp. 110-11). The first Georgian to hold the position of dārūḡa of the capital since 1620 was Ḵosrow Mīrzā (Della Valle 1843, II, p. 176). Ḵosrow Mīrzā held the position until his death in 1658, though he mostly let himself be represented by a deputy (nāʾeb). Georgians continued to occupy this position until the last days of the Safavid rule.

The position of the Georgian ḡolāms was further strengthened under Shah Ṣafī and Shah ʿAbbās II. Eskandar Beg claims that at the time of Shah Abbās’s death, ḡolāms (not all of them Georgian) held twenty-one of the ninety-two most powerful positions (Eskandar Beg, pp. 1084-89, tr. Savory II, pp. 1309-17). And of the thirty-seven great amirs appointed under Shah ʿAbbās II, at least twenty-three were ḡolāms (Röhrborn, p. 33). Following the slaughter of a great many Qezelbāš, the Georgians under Shah Ṣafī consolidated their hold over key positions in the inner palace, the bureaucracy, and the military. The shah’s own chamberlain (mehtar) was a white eunuch of Georgian origin (Olearius, p. 571; Taḏkerat al-molūk, tr. Minorsky, pp. 127, 138). Aside from the positions of qollar-āqāsī and dārūḡa of Isfahan, they virtually monopolized the posts of dīvānbegī (q.v., chief justice) and sepahsālār (military commander). These and other positions tended to become hereditary, and one powerful functionary typically held more than one simultaneously. Thus Ḵosrow Mīrzā served as dīvānbegī and dārūḡa of Isfahan under Shah ʿAbbās, played a crucial role in the accession of Shah Ṣafī in 1038/1629, and was made qollar-āqāsī the following year, on which occasion he was renamed Rostam Khan (Eskandar Beg, p. 1078, tr. p. 1302; Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 46). In 1632, following a rebellion in Kartli, he became wālī of that part of Georgia (Eskander Beg and Wāla Eṣfahānī, pp. 114, 136; Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 144). Having been appointed to all of Georgia in 1058/1648, he remained in power until his death in 1069/1658. He is not to be confused with another Rostam Beg, who was dīvānbegī in the last years of Shah ʿAbbās I’s reign, and served as tofangčī-āqāsī (rifleman commander), sepahsālār, and beglerbeg of Azerbaijan between 1040/1631 and his execution in 1053/1643. Rostam Beg’s younger brother, ʿAlīqolī Khan, had a remarkable career spanning fifty years, during which he served as dīvānbegī under Shah Ṣafī (Eskander Beg and Wāla Eṣfahānī, pp. 146, 166; Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm, p. 197; Waḥīd Qazvīnī, p. 47; Olearius, p. 671), held the post of sepahsālār and the attendant position of beglerbegī of Azerbaijan between 1058/1648 and 1064/1654, fell out of favor, but was rehabilitated by Shah Solaymān, who reinstated him as sepahsālār. Chardin called him the effective ruler of the country at the time of his death in 1667 (Waḥīd Qazvīnī, pp. 138, 174-75; Tavernier, I, p. 638-43; Chardin, IX, pp. 555-63, X, p. 70). Rostam Beg’s son, Ṣafīqolī Khan, was appointed dīvānbegī in 1067/1657 (Šāmlū, fol. 133v.; Algemeen Rijks Archief, VOC 1224, fol. 316 v.), and took up the governorship of Mašhad in 1074/1664 (Šāmlū, fol. 146v.). Ṣafīqolī Khan’s son, Rostam Khan, was dīvānbegī under Shah Solaymān and also served as tofangčī-āqāsī, and in 1692 was appointed sepahsālār and beglerbegī of Tabrīz (Mašīzī, p. 626; Ḵātūnābādī, pp. 548, 550). The brother of Gorgīn Khan (Giorgi XI, the former king of Kartli), Levan (Leon), also known as Šāhqolī Khan, was appointed dīvānbegī ofIsfahanin 1700 upon his victorious return from a campaign against the Baluch marauders in Kermān (Lockhart, p. 46; Lang, 1952, p. 527). Levan’s son, Kay-ḵosrow (Ḵosrow Khan) similarly briefly served as dīvānbegī in 1709 and was rewarded with the position of dārūḡa of Isfahan for quelling a bread revolt, and in 1709 became sepahsālār and was also made wālī of Georgia (Algemeen Rijks Archief, VOC, 1753, fol. 293v.; Mostawfī, p. 116; Lockhart, pp. 49-50). He was killed during an expedition in Afghanistan against the Ḡilzī (q.v.) Afghans. The sepahsālār (and beglarbegī of Azerbaijan and wālī of Georgia) in 1716 was Ḥosaynqolī Khan (Wahtang VI), the brother of the qollar-āqāsī, Rostam Mīrzā. In 1717 he succeded his brother as qollar-āqāsī (Bushev, pp. 181-82; Algemeen Rijks Archief, VOC 1897, fol. 271; Krusinski, I, pp. 190, 198-99).

As these examples show, the administrative and military power of Georgians continued right up to the end of the Safavid period. Fryer’s claim (II, p. 291) that in 1677 Georgians contributed forty thousand soldiers to the Persian army, is surely exaggerated, but Engelbert Kaempfer (p. 204) may well have been right in his assertion that, by the 1680s, about twenty thousand Georgians (including Circassians and Daghestanis) were living in Isfahan. Shah Solaymān, who seemed to have favored Georgians, asked Šahnavāz Khan (Vakhtang V), the king of Kartli, to marry his daughter Anusa and made Šahanavāz’s son, Alexander, the dārūḡa of Isfahan (Brosset, 1856, II/2, p. 9). It is also said that Shah Solaymān kept the Georgians content and forgetful of their origins by promoting them to high positions (Sanson, pp. 176-77). Their internal divisions, noted by Chardin (II, p. 42) and the fact that they never achieved full autonomy but had to compete with other groups, kept them from establishing supremacy in the administration. The Georgians, moreover, were not universally loved and their tremendous power gave rise to a great deal of friction and factionalism. Chardin tells the story of ʿAlīqolī Khan, a Georgian, who was sent to Lorestān and caused a local revolt (Chardin, IX, p. 206). The same author (V, p. 228) further notes that older Persians loathed the Georgian newcomers, calling them qara oḡlū, sons of blacks; he also remarks (II, pp. 42-43, 150) on the animosity that existed between Georgians and Armenians, another group that figured conspicuously in governmental circles. Others noted that the Georgians were feared in Persia (Carmelite Archives, O.C.D. 243 1 bis; Avril, p. 60). In late Safavid times an anti-Georgian faction consisting of the superintendant of the royal workshops (nāẓer-e boyūtāt) and the grand vizier is reported (Lang, 1952, pp. 530-31). There surely was no love lost between the Qezelbāš and the Georgians in late Safavid times; while the Qezelbāš are said to have encouraged the Afghans to invade Persia to further their own cause against the Georgians, anti-Muslim sentiments seem to have prompted some of the latter to hope for a Russian invasion (Lang, 1957, p. 109; Lockhart, pp. 86, 89; Röhrborn, p. 38).

However that may be, the very demise of the Safavid state is entwined with Georgian military leadership. Giorgi XI or Gorgīn Khan (Šahnavāz Khan III), was the ruler of Georgia who, having lost his throne, in 1699 was made governor of Kermān with the task of halting the Baluchi incursions that threatened the country’s southeast. Four years later the need to repel invading Afghans prompted the shah to appoint him as sepahsālār, beglerbegī of Qandahār and, nominally, wālī of Kartli. In 1716 it was the turn of Ḥosaynqolī Khan (Vakhtang VI), Giogi XI’s regent in Georgia, to be appointed sepahsālār and charged with fighting the Afghans. Georgian troops, led by Rostam Khan, fought valiantly against the Afghans at the battle of Golnābād in 1134/1722, but their number was too small to keep the enemy from laying siege to Isfahan. A refusal on the part of Vakhtang VI, now again residing in Georgia, to send relief troops to Persia, finally made it impossible for the Safavids to save the city and their realm (Mostawfī, p. 129; Lang, 1957, pp. 104-13; Röhrborn, p. 89).



Bibliography:

C. Alonso, Misioneros Agostinos en Georgia (siglo XVII), Valladolid, 1978.

Algemeen Rijks Archief (Dutch National Archives), The Hague, Vereenigde Oostindische Companie (VOC; Dutch East Indies Company).

Ph. Avril, Voyage en divers états d’Europe et d’Asie, Paris, 1693.

M.-F. Brosset, Histoire de la Géorgie depuis l’antiquité jusqu’au XIXe siècle, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1856.

Idem, Collection d’historiens arméniens, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1874-76.

P. P. Bushev, Posol’stovo Artemiya Volynskogo v Iran v 1715-1718 gg. (The Mission of Artemiya Volynskiĭ to Iran in 1715-1718), Moscow, 1978.

Carmelite Archives, Rome. Pietro Della Valle, Viaggi di P. Della Valle, il pellegrino, ed. G. Gancia, 2 vols., Brighton, England, 1843.

Idem, “Informazione dalla Giorgia data alla Santita di nostro signore Papa Urbano VIII,” in M. Thevenot, Relation de divers voyages curieux qui n’ont point été publiés, Paris, 1663.

Eskander Beg Monšī and Moḥammad-Yūsof Wāla Eṣfahānī, Ḏayl-e Tārīḵ-e ʿālamārā-ye ʿabbāsī, ed. A. Sohaylī Ḵᵛānsārī, Tehran, 1317 Š./1938.

Moḥammad-Maʿṣūm b. Ḵᵛajagī Eṣfahānī, Ḵolāṣat al-sīar, ed. Ī. Afšār, Tehran, 1368 Š./1989.

John Fryer, A New Account of East India and Persia, Being Nine Years’ Travels 1672-1681, ed. W. Crooke, 3 vols., London, 1909-15.

P. Gorgidzhanidze, Istoriya Gruzii (History of Georgia), tr. R. K. Kiknadze and V. S. Puturidze, Tbilisi, 1990.

C. Grey, ed., Travels to Tana and Persia II: A Narrative of Italian Travels to Persia, London, 1873.

Mīrzā Beg Jonābādī, Rawżat al-Ṣafawīya, ed. Ġ-R. Ṭabāṭabāʾī Majd, Tehran 1378 Š./1999.

Engelbert Kaempfer, Amoenitates exoticae, tr. W. Hinz as Am Hofedes persischen Grosskönigs, 1684-1685, Leipzig, 1940, repr. Tübingen and Basel, 1977.

Mollā Jalāl-al-Dīn Monajjem, Tārīḵ-e ʿabbāsī yā rūz-nāma-ye Mollā Jalāl, ed. S. Waḥīd-nīā, Tehran, 1366 Š./1987.

Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Ḵātūnābādī, Waqāyeʿ al-sannīn wa’l-aʿwām, Tehran, 1378 Š./1998.

T. Krusinski, The History of the Revolutions of Persia, repr., 2 vols. in one, New York, 1973.

D. M. Lang, “Georgia and the Fall of the Safavi Dynasty,” BSO(A)S 14, 1952, pp. 523-39.

Idem, The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, New York, 1957.

L. Lockhart, The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia, Cambridge, 1958.

Malekšāh Ḥosayn Sīstānī, Eḥyaʾ al-molūk, ed. M. Sotūda, Tehran, 1344 Š./1965.

Mīr Moḥammad-Saʿīd Mašīzī (Bardsīrī), Taḏkera-ye Ṣafawīya-ye Kermān, ed. M.-E. Bāstānī Pārīzī, Tehran, 1369 Š./1990.

Moḥammad-Moḥsen Mostawfī, Zobdat al-tawārīḵ, ed. B. Gūdarzī, Tehran, 1375 Š./1996.

Moḥammad-Ṭāher Naṣrābādī, Taḏkera-ye Naṣrābādī, ed. Ḥ. Waḥīd Dastgerdī, Tehran, 1373 Š./1994.

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(Rudi Matthee)

Originally Published: December 15, 2001

Last Updated: February 7, 2012

This article is available in print.
Vol. X, Fasc. 5, pp. 493-496

Sunday, October 16, 2016

White Slavery - Iranian Georgians

Iranian Georgians (Georgianირანის ქართველები) are Iranian citizens who are ethnically Georgian, and are an ethnic group living in Iran. Today's Georgia was a subject to Iran from the 16th century till the early 19th century, starting with the Safavids in power.Shah Abbas I, his predecessors, and successors, relocated by force hundreds of thousands of Christian, and Jewish Georgiansas part of his programs to reduce the power of the Qizilbash, develop industrial economy, strengthen the military, and populate newly built towns in various places in Iran including the provinces of Isfahan and Mazandaran.[2] A certain amount consisting of nobles also migrated voluntarily over the centuries,[3] as well as some that moved as muhajirs in the 19th century to Iran, following the Russianconquest of the Caucasus.[4] The Georgian community of Fereydunshahr have retained their distinct Georgian identity until this day, while had to adopt aspects of Iranian culturesuch as Persian language, and Twelver ShiaIslam in order to survive in the society.[5][6][7]

Islamo-Leftist Alliance: Anti-American Religion

Islamo-Leftist Alliance

Islamo-Leftism (French: islamo-gauchisme), (Islamo-Leftists) is a neologism defined by French philosopher Pascal Bruckner as, "the fusion between the atheist Far Left and religious radicalism."

According to Bruckner, Islamo-Leftism was "chiefly" conceived by British Trotskyites of the Socialist Workers Party. Because these dedicated Leftists perceive Islam's potential for fomenting societal unrest, they promote tactical, temporary alliances with reactionary Muslim parties. According to Bruckner, Leftist adherents of Third-Worldism hope to use Islamism as a "battering-ram" to bring about the downfall of free-market capitalism, and they see the sacrifice of individual rights - in particular, of women's rights - as an acceptable trade-off in service of the greater goal of destroying capitalism. Bruckner contends that Islamists, for their part, pretend to join the left in its opposition to racism, neocolonialism, and globalization as a tactical and temporary means to achieve their true goal of imposing the "totalitarian theocracy" of Islamist government.

In his 2015 novel, Submission, Michel Houellebecq has Robert Rediger, the fictional character who is a convert to Islam and university professor turned politician, describe Islamo-leftism (unlike Brucker's translator, Houellebecq's translator does not capitalize the "l",) as, "a desperate attempt by moldering, putrefying, brain-dead Marxists to hoist themselves out of the dustbin of history by latching onto the coattails of Islam."

Political scientist Maurice Fraser regards Islamo-Leftism as part of a, "striking and recent abdication of the Enlightenment project of human rights, freedom, secularism, science and progress," on the part of the political left, particularly among the anti-globalization activists of the New Left.  Bernard-Henri Lévy describes Islamo-Leftism as a sort of "anti-American religion."

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

How to get YDNA haplogroup from AncestryDNA results

How to get YDNA haplogroup from AncestryDNA results

I recently learned a fun little secret about AncestryDNA tests: their tests include YDNA SNPs!  It doesn't include as many SNPs as the 23andme test (885 vs 2000), but its often enough to provide men with their YDNA haplogroup.  Ancestry's kit is less than half the price of a 23andme kit (currently on sale for $79 with free shipping viaAmazon.com vs. $199 for 23andme) so its a very economical method for getting this information.

AncestryDNA hides the YDNA deep within the raw data, so you have to do some digging to find the haplogroup.  I wanted to make this an easier process the average genealogist could do.  Here's a guide on how to get that information.

Getting a YDNA  Haplogroup from AncestryDNA Results

UPDATE #1 1/6/2015: I've updated this post with a new method that uses Felix Immanuel's tools over at y-str.org and is much more automated. However, it does not use the latest version of the Y-Tree to determine SNPs (it uses 2014 version) and might have some outdated results.  Its still best to check against the ISOGG Y-DNA Tree in case of changes.

UPDATE #2 1/7/2015: I've also added a script that will automatically reformat AncestryDNA.txt to a format compatible with the 23andme to Y-SNP Converter (special thanks to redditor /u/highlandnilo).  Your computer may give a virus warning when downloading it due to it being a VBS script.  If this causes problems you can always follow the instructions for modifying the file yourself.

Note: YDNA data is only available for male test takers.

Method One: Automated SNP extraction


Step One: Download your raw data.

On the DNA Home Page, click on "Settings" on the right side of the page.  On the settings page you'll see a box on the right titled "Actions."  The first option is "Download your raw DNA data."  Click the button just below this that says "Get Started."  You'll be prompted to enter your password.  After this, an email with a special link will be sent to your account's email address.  It may take a few hours for this email to arrive.  When it does, click the link and log in to your account.  You'll then be able to download your test results.  The result is a very large text file called "AncestryDNA."  Save this to your computer.

Step Two: Reformat the file

The program we are going to use is designed for 23andme results, so we'll need to reformat the file a bit before it will accept the AncestryDNA file as a valid input. Here is a simple VBS script that will do the reformatting for you:

Download DNAConverter.vbs.

Just download that and place it in the same directory as your AncestryDNA.txt.  Double click the script and it will create a new file called AncestryDNA_Edited.txt.  Now proceed to Step Three.

If you are unable to use the above VBS script, you can make the changes manually in a spreadsheet program.  First, open up the AncestryDNA.txt file in Excel or your spreadsheet program of choice.  You'll want to import it as a tab-deliminated file.  Next we'll need to make the following four changes:
1) Remove the header - this is the first 16 lines, all starting with a #.  Delete these rows so the table headers are the first row.
2) Delete the entire Column E ("allele2").
3) Change "allele1" to "genotype"
4) Replace all mentions of Chromosome "24" with "Y".  In Excel you can quickly do this by doing CTRL-F, going to the "Replace" tab, then putting 24 in as the text to find and Y as the text to replace it with.  Important: Also click the options button and select "Match entire cell contents."  The click "Replace All"
When finished, save this edited file as a txt file.  Do not worry about any compatibility warnings Excel might give you when saving.  

Step Three: Download Felix Immanuel's 23andMe to Y-SNP Converter


Felix Immanuel's Y-STR.org site has a ton of great tools for in-depth analysis of DNA results.  This particular tool parses the data of a 23andme raw data file and outputs YDNA SNPs.  In the last step, we converted our AncestryDNA file to the proper format for this program to read.


Run the program and select the edited AncestryDNA file you created in the prior step.  It will output a list of YSNPs:
Now go to File > Save Y-SNPs.  This will create a text file called YSNPS.txt

Step Four: Obtain your Haplogroup

Now go to Chris Morley's Y-SNP Subclade predictor website.  Copy the contents of the YSNPS.txt file into the box on that page and click Predict.  Your possible Haplogroups will be displayed on the left.  It should look something like this:

You may have to select the second or third choice to find your correct haplogroup.  It will be the one with the most green in it.  However, you should IGNORE root ancestral groups such as BT or F.  If BT or F is your most likely group, proceed to the next one on the list with the most green. 




Method Two: Promethease


Step One: Download your raw data.

On the DNA Home Page, click on "Settings" on the right side of the page.  On the settings page you'll see a box on the right titled "Actions."  The first option is "Download your raw DNA data."  Click the button just below this that says "Get Started."  You'll be prompted to enter your password.  After this, an email with a special link will be sent to your account's email address.  It may take a few hours for this email to arrive.  When it does, click the link and log in to your account.  You'll then be able to download your test results.  The result is a very large text file called "AncestryDNA."  Save this to your computer.

Step Two: Obtaining the YDNA data.


To obtain your haplogroup, you'll need to run the raw data file through Promethease.com.  This service reads your DNA test results and outputs a health report, all for the very low cost of $5 (there's also a slower free version available here).  Simply upload the file you received from AncestryDNA to the Promethease website and it will provide you a health report.  Just remember to save the report to your computer after you run it, as it will expire after 30 days!

Promethease reports categorize your results based on different medical or information topics.  To find the haplogroup info, click on the "Topics" drop-down menu on the right side and select "Haplogroups."  Next, select the drop-down that says "Sort by magnitude" and change this to "Sort by frequency."

Want to see what a Promethease report looks like before you buy it?  Try the above search on this example report.

Step Three: Interpreting the results.


You're now looking at a list of YDNA SNPs known to indicate a person's haplogroup.  The top results will be the rarest, and most likely to indicate the terminal haplogroup.  Unfortunately the information provided by Promethease doesn't go into detail on what each YDNA marker means.  So we'll have to look at a second website to interpret the results.  In a separate browser window, open up the ISOGG YDNA SNP Index.   Now highlight the RefSNP ID (aka "rs" number) of the top (rarest) result in Promethease.  On the ISOGG page, do a CTRL-F search and paste in the rs number.  Hopefully it will be in this database and jump to the correct SNP.

On the ISOGG page, each SNP entry will have something in the rightmost column like "A->T" or "G->A".  This is the change that indicates whether or not someone is positive for that particular haplogroup.  The letter on the left is the ancestral version.  The letter on the right is the mutation that signals your test belongs in that haplogroup. You'll want to compare this to your Promethease results to see if you are positive or negative for each haplogroup indicator.

So for example, if my top Promethease result for haplogroups is "rs17250535(A;A)" then I  will search for "rs17250535" on the ISOGG page.  I then see the mutation for this SNP is T->A.  Since my result in Promethease was (A;A), I am positive for this mutation and belong to this haplogroup, which the ISOGG page reveals is R1a.  Had I been negative (T;T), then I would have proceeded to the next SNP in Promethease.  Its a good idea to try a few of the SNPs, just to be sure.  Keep in mind that if you fall in a subgroup like R1a, you should be positive for all parent groups as well, such as R1 and R.

Promethease does not provide a complete listing of relevant YDNA SNPs.  But typically it will provide enough for you to discover the rough haplogroup.  Once you've found your group, it might be a good idea to search for more SNPs relevant to that particular group in your raw data from AncestryDNA.  Admittedly its not the easiest process, but its cheaper than any of the other options for obtaining YNDA results.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Wahabi Influence In Sunni Mosques

Here is an example of how Saudi Funded Wahabi ideology infiltrates Sunni Mosques and inspires groups like ISIS...

Iranian Shia Muslim converted to Saudi Wahabi Islam (The sect that inspires terrorism around the world)

So this convert to Saudi Sunni Wahabism commits terrorism by holding hostages, the rest of the Non-Wahabi Sunni community tries to either call him a Shia (which he is not anymore) or that he is not Sunni, because he is a Wahabi.   Well, true Sunnism is not Wahabism, however Wahabism is a Sunni Sect.  This can not be denied and has actually helped in the infiltration of Sunni Mosques by Wahabis.  Wahabi teachings have been spread around the world, especially in Sunni Mosques by $100 billion dollars in 20 years by the oil wealth of Saudi Arabia and it's wealthy Princes (estimated around 5000 Princes). 

If Wahabism is not labeled and identified, then we will keep having all this so called Islamic Terror that is actually Sunni Wahabi Terror.  Traditional Shias and Sunnis are victims of this Sunni Wahabi movement. 

Thursday, February 6, 2014

Another Janissary Commander Executed for his Loyalty to Prince Mustafa

It is interesting to note that how many Janissary Commanders were executed during the "Reign of The Harem" due to the rivalry between the first born Prince Mustafa and his brother Selim (and his mother).  Here is another Bektashi Sufi (Shia-Sufi) Janissary Commander that is executed by the Sultan himself as an example to the rest of the Jannisaries so they don't think about revolting.  These kind of revolts plagued the Ottoman Empire for some time due to the mishandling of government and allowing detrimental influences.

A Janissary Commander Being Executed For His Loyalty to Prince Mustafa

This is a very interesting scene regarding the courage of the Bektashi Sufi (Shia-Sufi) Jannisary Commander who pledged his loyalty to Prince Mustafa instead of his younger brother.

Janissary Revolt Against The Ottoman Sultanate

The Janissaaries who were Bektashi Sufis (Shia-Sufi) sided with Prince Mustafa against his brother who would become Sultan Selim The Grim...However, due to Selim's mother's cunning, every plot to revolt and give Prince Mustafa his right as first born, it was put down because the Sultan had been brainwashed by his Russian wife "Roxalana" aka Hurrem Sultana.  

Monday, November 4, 2013

Bektashi Shia-Sufi Teachings Through Liberal Humor

The telling of jokes and humorous tales is an important part of Bektashi Shia-Sufism (faith of the Ottoman Janissaries) culture and teaching. Frequently these poke fun at conventional religious views by counterpoising the Bektashi "dervish" as an iconoclastic figure. For example:

A Bektashi was praying in the mosque. While those around him were praying "May God grant me faith," he muttered "May God grant me plenty of wine." The imam heard him and asked angrily why instead of asking for faith like everyone else, he was asking God for something sinful. The Bektashi replied, "Well, everyone asks for what they don't have."

A Bektashi was a passenger in a rowing boat travelling from Eminönü to Üsküdar in Istanbul. When a storm blew up, the boatman tried to reassure him by saying "Fear not - God is great!" the Betktashi replied, "Yes, God is great, but the boat is small."

An imam was preaching about the evils of alcohol and asked "If you put a pail of water and a pail of rakı in front of a donkey, which one will he drink from?" A Bektashi in the congregation immediately answered. "The water!" "Indeed," said the imam, "and why is that?" "Because he's an ass."

Turkish Music: Remembering Imam Hussein's Sacrifice at Karbala Against The Forces of Terrorism and Oppression